Discussion:
Hispanicks to be tried on world court
(demasiado antiguo para responder)
Paul Thorsen
2004-05-21 15:08:16 UTC
Permalink
The Hispanick race of people should be tried on the World Court for crimes
against humanity.
Including, though certainly not limited to:
1) rendering unlivable every society they invited themselves into (see Incas,
Aztecs, USA)
2) stealing obscene amounts of gold from native American societies
3) ZERO contributions to modern technological society
4) forcing their loser language and culture on every society they invite
themselves into
5) rewriting the history of every successful society they invite themselves
into to make it appear as if Hispanicks created those societies and made them
great
6) forcing their names on every society they invite themselves into
7) taking away amounts of wealth from every successful society they invited
themselves into
Jose Millan Astray
2004-05-21 17:42:25 UTC
Permalink
Pablo,
By entertaining your ignorance I am guilty of casting my pearls before
swines, but in answer to your Ramblings of an Avowed Xenophobe #3. How
about the aviation pioneers Alberto Santos-Dumont and Juan de la Cieva?

Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
Post by Paul Thorsen
The Hispanick race of people should be tried on the World Court for crimes
against humanity.
1) rendering unlivable every society they invited themselves into (see Incas,
Aztecs, USA)
2) stealing obscene amounts of gold from native American societies
3) ZERO contributions to modern technological society
4) forcing their loser language and culture on every society they invite
themselves into
5) rewriting the history of every successful society they invite themselves
into to make it appear as if Hispanicks created those societies and made them
great
6) forcing their names on every society they invite themselves into
7) taking away amounts of wealth from every successful society they invited
themselves into
Paul Thorsen
2004-05-21 20:42:08 UTC
Permalink
Jose Millan Ashtray says:
<<How about the aviation pioneers Alberto Santos-Dumont and Juan de la Cieva?>>

First off, Santos-Dumont was Brazilian, not Hispanick. Secondly, he has French
blood in him which is where get got his brains from. Thirdly, he was educated
in France.

Santos-Dumont, «SAN tuhs doo MONT or SAHN tooz dyoo MAWN», Alberto
(1873-1932), a Brazilian inventor, pioneered advances in aviation in both
lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air machines. He also used his wealth to
promote aviation and to help other inventors.
Santos-Dumont was born on July 20, 1873, in the state of Minas Gerais and was
educated mostly in France. In 1898, he flew a cigar-shaped gas bag propelled by
two small engines driving a single propeller. He built a box-kite airplane in
1905. Each wing was a box-kite, and a third box-kite was suspended ahead of the
aircraft to provide control. In 1906, he flew it for eight seconds in the first
motor-powered heavier-than-air flight in Europe. The main advantage of the
box-kite construction was its light weight, about half that of the first Wright
brothers' biplane. Santos-Dumont's work was a major stimulus to European
aviation in the early 1900's. He died on July 23, 1932.
Paul Thorsen
2004-05-21 20:45:36 UTC
Permalink
Jose Millan Ashtray says:
<<How about the aviation pioneers Alberto Santos-Dumont and Juan de la Cieva?>>

Who is "Juan de la Cieva"??? Some fool who can't be found in any scientific
encyclopedia. Here is the real development of the helicopter:

Development of the helicopter
Early designs and experiments. The earliest known mention of a rotor-powered
flying machine appears in a Chinese text written about A.D. 320. The design of
this machine may have been based on a Chinese toy called the flying top. Such
toys flew by means of feather rotors. In 1483, the great Italian artist and
scientist Leonardo da Vinci sketched a design for a helicopter. It had a large,
screwlike wing made of starched linen. In 1784, two Frenchmen known only by
their last names, Launoy and Bienvenu, built the first model helicopter in
Europe that could fly. Based on the Chinese flying top, it had two rotors made
of feathers. Throughout the 1800's, inventors in Europe and the United States
experimented with model helicopters. The steam engines and electric motors of
that time were too weak or too heavy to power a full-sized helicopter.
By the early 1900's, small, powerful gasoline engines had been developed that
made human helicopter flight possible. The first piloted flight took place in
1907. The craft was a four-rotor helicopter built by Louis Breguet, a French
inventor. The helicopter lifted one of Breguet's assistants about 2 feet (60
centimeters) into the air for a minute. Assistants on the ground steadied the
helicopter during the flight. Later in 1907, a French mechanic named Paul Cornu
made the first free flight in a helicopter. He flew his tandem-rotor aircraft
to a height of about 6 feet (1.8 meters) for about 20 seconds.

The first practical helicopters. Early helicopters were difficult to control,
and their flight was wobbly. In 1935, Breguet and another Frenchman, Rene
Dorand, built a coaxial-rotor helicopter that was easier to control and flew
far more steadily. In 1936, Henrich Focke, a German inventor, built a
twin-rotor helicopter that was even further advanced. The following year, it
reached a speed of 76 miles (122 kilometers) per hour and an altitude of about
8,000 feet (2,400 meters). It could stay aloft for 1 hour and 20 minutes.
The first flight of a practical single-rotor helicopter took place in the
United States in 1939. The craft was built and flown by Igor I. Sikorsky, a
Russian engineer who had moved to the United States in 1919. The British and
the U.S. armed forces used an improved version of Sikorsky's helicopter during
World War II (1939-1945).

Further improvements. During the mid-1900's, the military use of helicopters
began to increase greatly, which led to major improvements in their design.
Helicopters had been used mainly for patrol and rescue missions in World War
II. New tasks for the helicopter during the Korean War (1950-1953) included
armed observation of the enemy and the transportation of troops and supplies to
hard-to-reach areas. During the Vietnam War (1957-1975), thousands of armed
U.S. attack helicopters, also called gunships, flew combat missions. During the
Persian Gulf wars of 1991 and 2003, the U.S. military used helicopters that
could fire missiles at Iraqi targets, wait to see the results, and then fire
again if the target was not destroyed.
The ever-expanding military use of helicopters encouraged the development of
faster, larger, and more powerful craft. In the 1940's and 1950's, engineers
adapted the jet engine for use in helicopters. Jet engines were lighter and
more powerful than the engines previously used to turn the rotor shafts. They
enabled helicopters to fly faster and higher and to carry heavier loads. In
addition, the use of new construction materials made helicopters lighter,
safer, and stronger. For example, metal and wooden blades have been replaced
with more durable blades made from composite materials, usually plastic
reinforced with carbon fibers.

Recent developments include efforts to increase the speed and range of
helicopters and to design and build helicopters that do not need a pilot. A
tiltrotor aircraft combines features of both helicopters and airplanes. It has
a wing like an airplane's and two main rotors, one at each wing tip. The
tiltrotor can take off, hover, fly, and land like a helicopter. But by moving
the rotors from a horizontal to a vertical position, the tiltrotor can fly like
an airplane. This feature gives the tiltrotor higher speeds and a longer range
than a traditional helicopter.
Manufacturers are also developing helicopters for use as unmanned aerial
vehicles (UAV's). These unpiloted vehicles can fly missions that are too
dangerous or too tedious for pilots.

Contributor:
• William A. Crossley, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, Purdue University.

How to cite this article:
To cite this article, World Book recommends the following format: Crossley,
William A. "Helicopter." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book,
Inc. 21 May 2004. <http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar251640>.
Observador
2004-05-21 22:06:46 UTC
Permalink
Stop posting under an english name,you dirty sub-human banana monkey or
is that coconut palm monkey ???
Post by Paul Thorsen
The Hispanick race of people should be tried on the World Court for crimes
against humanity.
1) rendering unlivable every society they invited themselves into (see Incas,
Aztecs, USA)
2) stealing obscene amounts of gold from native American societies
3) ZERO contributions to modern technological society
4) forcing their loser language and culture on every society they invite
themselves into
5) rewriting the history of every successful society they invite themselves
into to make it appear as if Hispanicks created those societies and made them
great
6) forcing their names on every society they invite themselves into
7) taking away amounts of wealth from every successful society they invited
themselves into
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-21 22:58:45 UTC
Permalink
Observer says:
<<Stop posting under an english name,you.....>>

First off, Thorsen is a Norwegian name. I created it to counter you Hispanicks
who claim Spanish should be the official language of the USA because "we were
here first". Despite 99.99% of Hispanicks now in the USA who came here out of
desperation to join the society created by the Anglos. When I point out that
native were here first, for thousands of years before the Spaniards, Hispanicks
always say "we were the first Europeans", to which I reply, actually the
Vikings (Norwegians) were the first Europeans here. Is that suppossed to mean
Latin America is suppossed to use Norwegian as its language and Japan is
suppossed to use Portuguese?
Any society in the world speaks the language of the people that created that
society, not "who was there first".
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Observador
2004-05-22 05:23:30 UTC
Permalink
You miserable lying pice of crap....your nothing but the crap that people
ware shoes to protect their feet from
WE Came with the Cross and the Sword to Christianize and Civilize the Savages.
Our ancestor did'nt come to america like the the Northern Europeans you admire
in stearage with only the clothes in their backs.
And We in Southern Europe were Never Contaminated by the condition of slavery
known as feudalism in northern European Countries.
Look yp weding customs and you will read about the right of the first night of the lord,
who took the the she bithches mothers, wives, and daughters of their serfs, and
screwed them good and well, all the males in the mannerhouse then returned them
to their "husbands" after they had enough of her.
Talk about a bastardized race......
Go and climb up your coconut palm and enjoy your coconuts.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Stop posting under an english name,you.....>>
First off, Thorsen is a Norwegian name. I created it to counter you Hispanicks
who claim Spanish should be the official language of the USA because "we were
here first". Despite 99.99% of Hispanicks now in the USA who came here out of
desperation to join the society created by the Anglos. When I point out that
native were here first, for thousands of years before the Spaniards, Hispanicks
always say "we were the first Europeans", to which I reply, actually the
Vikings (Norwegians) were the first Europeans here. Is that suppossed to mean
Latin America is suppossed to use Norwegian as its language and Japan is
suppossed to use Portuguese?
Any society in the world speaks the language of the people that created that
society, not "who was there first".
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-22 14:38:58 UTC
Permalink
Observer says:
<<WE Came with the Cross and the Sword to Christianize and Civilize the
Savages.>>

BULLSHIT!!!! The Spaniards came to steal all the gold from the Americas.
"spreading Christiantiy" was just another way for Spaniards to force their
loser culture on the world uder the pretext of God. Like how they made native
take full Spanish names under the guise of it being "Christian names". Do you
see Anglos forcing their names on Gandhi Indians, Hawaiians and Samoans?

<<Our ancestor did'nt come to america like the the Northern Europeans you
admire in stearage with only the clothes in their backs.>>

Anglos didn't come to the Americans to steal what natives created. They came
just as natives themselves came, looking to set up a society here. That is what
you call natural migration and has gone on all throughout history all over the
world. Sneaking into a society created by otjhers is NOT natural migration.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-22 18:55:29 UTC
Permalink
I agree with you on this one . . .
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<WE Came with the Cross and the Sword to Christianize and Civilize the
Savages.>>
BULLSHIT!!!! The Spaniards came to steal all the gold from the Americas.
"spreading Christiantiy" was just another way for Spaniards to force their
loser culture on the world uder the pretext of God. Like how they made native
take full Spanish names under the guise of it being "Christian names". Do you
see Anglos forcing their names on Gandhi Indians, Hawaiians and Samoans?
<<Our ancestor did'nt come to america like the the Northern Europeans you
admire in stearage with only the clothes in their backs.>>
Here you begin to go loquita.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Anglos didn't come to the Americans to steal what natives created. They came
just as natives themselves came, looking to set up a society here. That is what
you call natural migration and has gone on all throughout history all over the
world. Sneaking into a society created by otjhers is NOT natural migration.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-22 18:54:42 UTC
Permalink
Spanish IS the official language of the US. Most indios speak Spanish.
By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves, you moron.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Stop posting under an english name,you.....>>
First off, Thorsen is a Norwegian name. I created it to counter you Hispanicks
who claim Spanish should be the official language of the USA because "we were
here first". Despite 99.99% of Hispanicks now in the USA who came here out of
desperation to join the society created by the Anglos. When I point out that
native were here first, for thousands of years before the Spaniards, Hispanicks
always say "we were the first Europeans", to which I reply, actually the
Vikings (Norwegians) were the first Europeans here. Is that suppossed to mean
Latin America is suppossed to use Norwegian as its language and Japan is
suppossed to use Portuguese?
Any society in the world speaks the language of the people that created that
society, not "who was there first".
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-22 19:51:53 UTC
Permalink
hegè***@imperio.com says:
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>

How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating or
developing the USA?

<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>

huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-22 20:31:52 UTC
Permalink
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO THEY
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and Africa.

African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)


The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture

The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.

http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm


http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating or
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-23 03:19:52 UTC
Permalink
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?

Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO THEY
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and Africa.
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating or
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-23 15:30:38 UTC
Permalink
You should change your name to "Unthinker" moron! You and the inbred
Samoan are probably brothers.
Post by A. Thinker
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?
Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO THEY
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and Africa.
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating or
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-23 18:57:12 UTC
Permalink
My, my, aren't you the archetypal irascible little man!

Speaking of brothers, you are the one suspiciously Polynesian looking, what
with that thick coat of fat and generously endowed bust! All you'd need is a
grass skirt to pass. After all, there are short, squat Samoans too, you
know? Oh, and you are almost as funny as our pet Samoan Le Fo, to boot!
Maybe you and him should compare ancestral notes, eh?

Bye!
Post by unknown
You should change your name to "Unthinker" moron! You and the inbred
Samoan are probably brothers.
Post by A. Thinker
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?
Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being
an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO THEY
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and Africa.
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating or
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-24 00:37:47 UTC
Permalink
Moron, you are so stupid you always identify yourself by the asinine
comments you make! Hye, I would not have any problems if I had Samoan
ancestors, is having you in my family tree that gives me the wiles!
Post by A. Thinker
My, my, aren't you the archetypal irascible little man!
Speaking of brothers, you are the one suspiciously Polynesian looking, what
with that thick coat of fat and generously endowed bust! All you'd need is a
grass skirt to pass. After all, there are short, squat Samoans too, you
know? Oh, and you are almost as funny as our pet Samoan Le Fo, to boot!
Maybe you and him should compare ancestral notes, eh?
Bye!
Post by unknown
You should change your name to "Unthinker" moron! You and the inbred
Samoan are probably brothers.
Post by A. Thinker
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?
Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being
an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO THEY
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and
Africa.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating
or
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-24 00:58:40 UTC
Permalink
Easy, easy, Herr Mojon...You are beginning to cross your i's and dot your
t's! No need to get the so-called "wiles" (you are one strange little man,
everybody else normally gets the willies) about us being even distantly
related. There are no jackasses in my genealogical tree.

Bye!

P.S.: You are a very funny and entertaining little bastard, alright!
Post by unknown
Moron, you are so stupid you always identify yourself by the asinine
comments you make! Hye, I would not have any problems if I had Samoan
ancestors, is having you in my family tree that gives me the wiles!
Post by A. Thinker
My, my, aren't you the archetypal irascible little man!
Speaking of brothers, you are the one suspiciously Polynesian looking, what
with that thick coat of fat and generously endowed bust! All you'd need is a
grass skirt to pass. After all, there are short, squat Samoans too, you
know? Oh, and you are almost as funny as our pet Samoan Le Fo, to boot!
Maybe you and him should compare ancestral notes, eh?
Bye!
Post by unknown
You should change your name to "Unthinker" moron! You and the inbred
Samoan are probably brothers.
Post by A. Thinker
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?
Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being
an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO THEY
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and
Africa.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating
or
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-24 03:15:53 UTC
Permalink
Ha ha! Mr. Stinker, in your case "wiles" works just fine, as a trailer
camp dweller that you are, that is what you deserve. I don't think you
could ever be related to me, I am smart, handsome and you are a stinking
moron pitiyanqui retard, and you still give me the wiles!

By the way, you are not funny or entertaining, only intelligent people
can understand the complexities of humor. In your case, you are boring
and nauseating.

Aaaaagh .. . excuse me while I puke.
Post by A. Thinker
Easy, easy, Herr Mojon...You are beginning to cross your i's and dot your
t's! No need to get the so-called "wiles" (you are one strange little man,
everybody else normally gets the willies) about us being even distantly
related. There are no jackasses in my genealogical tree.
Bye!
P.S.: You are a very funny and entertaining little bastard, alright!
Post by unknown
Moron, you are so stupid you always identify yourself by the asinine
comments you make! Hye, I would not have any problems if I had Samoan
ancestors, is having you in my family tree that gives me the wiles!
Post by A. Thinker
My, my, aren't you the archetypal irascible little man!
Speaking of brothers, you are the one suspiciously Polynesian looking,
what
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
with that thick coat of fat and generously endowed bust! All you'd need
is a
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
grass skirt to pass. After all, there are short, squat Samoans too, you
know? Oh, and you are almost as funny as our pet Samoan Le Fo, to boot!
Maybe you and him should compare ancestral notes, eh?
Bye!
Post by unknown
You should change your name to "Unthinker" moron! You and the inbred
Samoan are probably brothers.
Post by A. Thinker
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?
Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being
an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO
THEY
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and
Africa.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual achievements,
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating
or
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-24 04:31:07 UTC
Permalink
Why, Herr Mojon, I had perceived you as an excitable and hysterical little
man, but I'd never guess you could work yourself into a fit of nervous
vomiting and nausea! Of course you are excused! I wouldn't want such an
amusing little fellow to choke on his own feces and deprive this newsgroup
of much needed comic relief...

Bye!
Post by unknown
Ha ha! Mr. Stinker, in your case "wiles" works just fine, as a trailer
camp dweller that you are, that is what you deserve. I don't think you
could ever be related to me, I am smart, handsome and you are a stinking
moron pitiyanqui retard, and you still give me the wiles!
By the way, you are not funny or entertaining, only intelligent people
can understand the complexities of humor. In your case, you are boring
and nauseating.
Aaaaagh .. . excuse me while I puke.
Post by A. Thinker
Easy, easy, Herr Mojon...You are beginning to cross your i's and dot your
t's! No need to get the so-called "wiles" (you are one strange little man,
everybody else normally gets the willies) about us being even distantly
related. There are no jackasses in my genealogical tree.
Bye!
P.S.: You are a very funny and entertaining little bastard, alright!
Post by unknown
Moron, you are so stupid you always identify yourself by the asinine
comments you make! Hye, I would not have any problems if I had Samoan
ancestors, is having you in my family tree that gives me the wiles!
Post by A. Thinker
My, my, aren't you the archetypal irascible little man!
Speaking of brothers, you are the one suspiciously Polynesian looking,
what
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
with that thick coat of fat and generously endowed bust! All you'd need
is a
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
grass skirt to pass. After all, there are short, squat Samoans too, you
know? Oh, and you are almost as funny as our pet Samoan Le Fo, to boot!
Maybe you and him should compare ancestral notes, eh?
Bye!
Post by unknown
You should change your name to "Unthinker" moron! You and the inbred
Samoan are probably brothers.
Post by A. Thinker
What have we here? Another imbecile who plays into the compulsively
iterative, humdrum Samoan's hands?
Then again, a Victurd by any other name can't help but being
an....ASSHOLE.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Iknew it, you are a MORON! Look at the faces of Olmect statues, DO
THEY
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
LOOK VIKING? Do quick search in Google and write, moron, Olmec and
Africa.
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
African Empires of Ancient America
by Clyde A. Winters PhD
biography
"The view that Africans originated writing in America is not new.
Scholars early recognized the affinity between Amerindian scripts and
the Mande script(s)." Beginning with Rafinesque in 1832, Leo Wiener
(1922) Harold Lawrence (1962)
The Birth of Olmec Culture Mesoamerica's mother culture
The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican people to fathom the concept of
zero, maintain a calendar, and use a hieroglyphic writing system based
on the Manding system of West Africa. These intellectual
achievements,
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
as well as Olmec myths and rituals, were influential in the subsequent
Maya, Zapotec, and Aztec cultures.
http://www.raceandhistory.com/historicalviews/04022002.htm
http://www.carnaval.com/columbus/olmecs.htm
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating
or
Post by unknown
Post by A. Thinker
Post by unknown
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-23 03:19:52 UTC
Permalink
Leusogafuckfuck...? What? No wonder you prefer to use the fake moniker "Paul
Thorsen"! With a name like that, who blames you? Man, I sure hope you don't
stutter! Your dumb diatribes are so boringly repetitious that you sound like
a stutterer when you write.

Goodbye, Le Fo... You are too stupid to argue intelligently with. Still
it's pretty amazing that so many imbeciles have fallen for your ridiculous
charade. A Samoan "Viking", indeed! Hah!
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<Spanish IS the official language of the US.>>
How can that be if Spaniards played no part at all in either creating or
developing the USA?
<<By the way moron, Africans came to the Americas long before the
barbarian Vikings were even able to get out of their caves.....>>
huh? explain that for us, Senyor.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Latinguyny
2004-05-23 00:53:24 UTC
Permalink
Instead of talking about Hispanic's (correct spelling), why don't you talk
about the how the white man took land that didn't belong to them from the
native American's and enslaved the black man in north America? It wasn't
the Hispanic's that did what you say we did, it was the Spaniards. We
present day Hispanic's are a product of history. We don't force our names
on anyone, they are our names and we are going to keep them. We didn't
force our names like the white man forced their names on African Americans.
We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the white
man. Blacks couldn't even sit in front of a bus, blacks were sitting
together with us eating dinner while whites had different toilets for them
to use. Europeans didn't migrate to this continent, they took it over.

You are a very stupid person. It's seems like you are living in the past.
If we should go to the world court for crimes, you whites will be right
behind us or even in the front. Example: Hitler for one, Christopher
Columbus second and the list goes on.
Post by Paul Thorsen
The Hispanick race of people should be tried on the World Court for crimes
against humanity.
1) rendering unlivable every society they invited themselves into (see Incas,
Aztecs, USA)
2) stealing obscene amounts of gold from native American societies
3) ZERO contributions to modern technological society
4) forcing their loser language and culture on every society they invite
themselves into
5) rewriting the history of every successful society they invite themselves
into to make it appear as if Hispanicks created those societies and made them
great
6) forcing their names on every society they invite themselves into
7) taking away amounts of wealth from every successful society they invited
themselves into
unknown
2004-05-23 03:05:34 UTC
Permalink
For him to be able to do what you ask he would have to be educated, all
the education he has is throwing beer cans into the trash from his
trailer park home.
Post by Latinguyny
Instead of talking about Hispanic's (correct spelling), why don't you talk
about the how the white man took land that didn't belong to them from the
native American's and enslaved the black man in north America? It wasn't
the Hispanic's that did what you say we did, it was the Spaniards. We
present day Hispanic's are a product of history. We don't force our names
on anyone, they are our names and we are going to keep them. We didn't
force our names like the white man forced their names on African Americans.
We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the white
man. Blacks couldn't even sit in front of a bus, blacks were sitting
together with us eating dinner while whites had different toilets for them
to use. Europeans didn't migrate to this continent, they took it over.
You are a very stupid person. It's seems like you are living in the past.
If we should go to the world court for crimes, you whites will be right
behind us or even in the front. Example: Hitler for one, Christopher
Columbus second and the list goes on.
Post by Paul Thorsen
The Hispanick race of people should be tried on the World Court for crimes
against humanity.
1) rendering unlivable every society they invited themselves into (see
Incas,
Post by Paul Thorsen
Aztecs, USA)
2) stealing obscene amounts of gold from native American societies
3) ZERO contributions to modern technological society
4) forcing their loser language and culture on every society they invite
themselves into
5) rewriting the history of every successful society they invite
themselves
Post by Paul Thorsen
into to make it appear as if Hispanicks created those societies and made
them
Post by Paul Thorsen
great
6) forcing their names on every society they invite themselves into
7) taking away amounts of wealth from every successful society they
invited
Post by Paul Thorsen
themselves into
A. Thinker
2004-05-23 03:19:51 UTC
Permalink
Let's see:

There are White Hispanics
There are Black Hispanics
There are Asiatic Hispanics
There are Amerindian Hispanics
There are Mixed Hispanics
Therefore, "Hispanics" are NOT a race and referring to the "white man" as if
Hispanics where a racially homogeneous "non-white" ethnic group is a sign of
ignorance and of being mentally challenged (i.e., a brainwashed slave of
irrational, albeit popular, myths).

Furthermore:

"Paul Thorsen" is a pitiful phony.
The tub of shit is actually a blubber-bellied, snot-nosed SAMOAN, not a
Caucasian of Nordic ancestry.
His tiresome and boring mantras reflect an irrational and childish grudge
against Hispanics.
The fake "Paul Thorsen" is an ASSHOLE.

Therefore:

In view of the above mentioned facts, the conclusion that YOU are also an
ASSHOLE and a sap -- for playing into the hands of the
drool-lipped Samoan whose real name is not only unpronounceable, but takes a
whole day to write -- is inescapable.

Goodbye.
Post by Latinguyny
Instead of talking about Hispanic's (correct spelling), why don't you talk
about the how the white man took land that didn't belong to them from the
native American's and enslaved the black man in north America? It wasn't
the Hispanic's that did what you say we did, it was the Spaniards. We
present day Hispanic's are a product of history. We don't force our names
on anyone, they are our names and we are going to keep them. We didn't
force our names like the white man forced their names on African Americans.
We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the white
man. Blacks couldn't even sit in front of a bus, blacks were sitting
together with us eating dinner while whites had different toilets for them
to use. Europeans didn't migrate to this continent, they took it over.
You are a very stupid person. It's seems like you are living in the past.
If we should go to the world court for crimes, you whites will be right
behind us or even in the front. Example: Hitler for one, Christopher
Columbus second and the list goes on.
Post by Paul Thorsen
The Hispanick race of people should be tried on the World Court for crimes
against humanity.
1) rendering unlivable every society they invited themselves into (see
Incas,
Post by Paul Thorsen
Aztecs, USA)
2) stealing obscene amounts of gold from native American societies
3) ZERO contributions to modern technological society
4) forcing their loser language and culture on every society they invite
themselves into
5) rewriting the history of every successful society they invite
themselves
Post by Paul Thorsen
into to make it appear as if Hispanicks created those societies and made
them
Post by Paul Thorsen
great
6) forcing their names on every society they invite themselves into
7) taking away amounts of wealth from every successful society they
invited
Post by Paul Thorsen
themselves into
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-23 03:43:08 UTC
Permalink
***@RealThinkers.net says:
<<There are White Hispanics>>

An Argentine of Polish or Italian ancestry is "white", not "Hispanick".

<<There are Black Hispanics>>

Sammy Sosa is Black, not Hispanick.

<<There are Asiatic Hispanics>>

Alberto Fujimori is of the Asian race of people, not the Hispanick race. Just
as Asian Americans are not "Anglos" nor "white".

<<There are Amerindian Hispanics>>

Then they are native Americans, not Hispanicks.

<<Therefore, "Hispanics" are NOT a race...>>

Hispanick is one of 11 distinct races found in this world.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-23 04:44:31 UTC
Permalink
Shoo, you insignificant, tiresome bug! Go feast on whatever carrion Samoan
shitflies feed on...I won't waste my valuable time and superior brain power
on ignorant idiots.

G-O-O-D-B-Y-E...
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<There are White Hispanics>>
An Argentine of Polish or Italian ancestry is "white", not "Hispanick".
<<There are Black Hispanics>>
Sammy Sosa is Black, not Hispanick.
<<There are Asiatic Hispanics>>
Alberto Fujimori is of the Asian race of people, not the Hispanick race. Just
as Asian Americans are not "Anglos" nor "white".
<<There are Amerindian Hispanics>>
Then they are native Americans, not Hispanicks.
<<Therefore, "Hispanics" are NOT a race...>>
Hispanick is one of 11 distinct races found in this world.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-23 05:18:45 UTC
Permalink
***@RealThinkers.net says:
<<I won't waste my valuable time and superior brain power
on ignorant idiots.>>

that makes me laugh. You HIspanicks have rendered unlivable every goddamned
society you have ever settled and have made ZERO contributions to science and
technology as Anglos have made, yet you come here touting the "brain power" of
Hispanicks.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
A. Thinker
2004-05-23 05:14:21 UTC
Permalink
Are you perchance descended from Friday, Robinson Crusoe's Samoan houseboy?
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<I won't waste my valuable time and superior brain power
on ignorant idiots.>>
that makes me laugh. You HIspanicks have rendered unlivable every goddamned
society you have ever settled and have made ZERO contributions to science and
technology as Anglos have made, yet you come here touting the "brain power" of
Hispanicks.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Latinguyny
2004-05-24 12:13:34 UTC
Permalink
Samoan education system 'to blame'
By VICKY LEPOU : November edition, 2001
Wansolwara Print

Suva: THE SAMOAN education system has been identified as one of the reasons
for the high failure rate of their students have been recording at the
University of the South Pacific in the past three years.

An academic, who did not want to be named, said the "gap" between Samoa
University's preparatory programme and the demands at the USP was the main
cause for the failure rate.

She believes lecturers in Samoa should teach basics and prepare students for
university life.

The academic was commenting on reports in the September edition of
Wansolwara, where Samoan and New Zealand government officials were reported
to be investigating the unusually high failure rate by first year students.

The newspaper reported that it was understood that that the first-year
failure rate last semester was an unprecedented 70 percent.

"The challenge for the Education Department now is to look for more
experienced lecturers and teachers to advise Samoan students during the
university preparatory year studies," the academic said.


USP Vice-Chancellor Savenaca Siwatibau said the Samoan students should not
be singled out for recording a low pass rate.

"The Fijian side is also affected statistically, especially with the Fijian
Affairs Board sponsored students," he said.

He revealed that students enrolled in the science and commerce studies were
the ones facing difficulties and recording weak results.

"We have plans to adopt the Victorian University (Australia) monitoring
scheme to examine the causes of such cases and see which areas that students
are finding hard to cope," said Siwatibau.

The scheme should enable students to try to resolve areas where they were
finding difficulties.
Post by A. Thinker
Are you perchance descended from Friday, Robinson Crusoe's Samoan houseboy?
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<I won't waste my valuable time and superior brain power
on ignorant idiots.>>
that makes me laugh. You HIspanicks have rendered unlivable every
goddamned
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
society you have ever settled and have made ZERO contributions to
science
Post by A. Thinker
and
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
technology as Anglos have made, yet you come here touting the "brain
power" of
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Hispanicks.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-23 15:26:11 UTC
Permalink
Sir, why don't you post in SOC.UNCULTURED.MORONS and leave this forum?
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<I won't waste my valuable time and superior brain power
on ignorant idiots.>>
that makes me laugh. You HIspanicks have rendered unlivable every goddamned
society you have ever settled and have made ZERO contributions to science and
technology as Anglos have made, yet you come here touting the "brain power" of
Hispanicks.
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-23 03:35:30 UTC
Permalink
***@netscape.net says:
<<why don't you talk
about the how the white man took land that didn't belong to them....>>

Like how Hispanicks stole Tenochtitaln and Cuzco from the Indians? Or are you
going to enlighten us to native cities stolen by Anglos? The Anglos migrated
here just as Indians themselves migrated into lands claimed by other Indian
tribes.

<<from the native American's and enslaved the black man in north America?>>

The Black man has been enslaved all over the world and even to this day are
enslaved in Africa. It was the Anglos who led the fight against slavery. Oh, by
the way, how did Blacks end up in the DR and Columbia? Accidental tourists?

<<It wasn't the Hispanic's that did what you say we did, it was the
Spaniards.>>

same shit.

<<We don't force our names on anyone..>>

Oh, so Filipinos and native Americans didn;t already have their own names?

<<We didn't force our names like the white man forced their names on African
Americans.>>

so how did "Carlos Delgado" and "Bobby Bonilla" get their names? I only have
problems when you go to the source and change their names in their homelands as
Spaniards did. Tell me why Filipinos can't have their own names like Batingan?

<<Europeans didn't migrate to this continent, they took it over.>>

and what did Indians create that Anglos took over?
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-23 03:37:53 UTC
Permalink
***@netscape.net
<<how the white man took land that didn't belong to them from the
native American's and enslaved.....>>

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+pa0013)
In 1517 King Charles V (1516-56) granted a concession for exporting 4,000
African slaves to the Antilles. Thus the slave trade began and flourished for
more than 200 years. Panama was a major distribution point for slaves headed
elsewhere on the mainland. The supply of Indian labor had been depleted by the
midsixteenth century, however, and Panama began to absorb many of the slaves. A
large number of slaves on the isthmus escaped into the jungle. They became
known as cimarrones (sing., cimarr?), meaning wild or unruly, because they
attacked travelers along the Camino Real. An official census of Panama City in
1610 listed 548 citizens, 303 women, 156 children, 146 mulattoes, 148 Antillean
blacks, and 3,500 African slaves.

From "Great Conquerors of South and Central America", by A. Hyatt Verrill,
copyright 1929
page 9
Immediately following the discovery of America, the Spaniards, as I have
already said, busied themselves with conquering the islands of the Caribbean.
It was not a very difficult nor dangeours undertaking. The Indians, whether
friendly or hostile, were primitive savages and considered merely as beasts of
burden. They were killed, tortured and enslaved without mercy. Frequently the
Spaniards would make a holiday of a wholesale massacre, and after herding the
natives into some open space, would amuse themselves by watching their savage
dogs fall upon the helpless people and tear them into pieces. At other times,
the Indians were hunted down and killed merely for sport, the carcasses of the
human "game" being used to feed the dogs and swine. So rapid and effective was
the enslaving and extermination of the Indians, that within 20 years after the
discovery of the Antilles, scarcely a single living free Indian existed upon
the larger islands.

page 29
Hernandez de Cordova had sailed from Cuba for the Bahamas, there to capture
Indians for slaves, but driven out of his course by gales....

page 36 (Cortes in Cuba)
However, he (Cortes) finally decided to follow the governor's advice, and
was given a large tract of land, a repartimiento of Indian slaves......There
were still hostile Indians in the interior of the island, and to vary the
monotony of a farmer's life, he joined several expeditions against the natives
.....

page 42
Soon after leaving Cuba the vessels were separated by storm, and when Cortes
reached Cozumel Island he found that Alvarado had already arrived. Possibly the
sunny-faced, fair-haired Don Pedro was unaware of the royal instructions given
to Cortes, or perhaps he considered the document merely as a scrap of paper to
be disregarded at will. At any rate, he had shown his "respect" for the Indians
by looting their temples, by ill-treating the inhabitants until they had fled
to the jungles, and by making prisoners of a number of men and women.

from "MEXICO, a History", by Robert Miller, copyright 1985
page 100
In the Oaxaca Valley of southern Mexico an army under Francisco de Orozco
subdued the Zapotecs, but their mountain-dwelling neighbors the Mixtecs proved
more difficult until Pedro de Alvarado led a successful campaign against them.
Alavarado's main column of 400 Spaniards and 20,000 Indian allies then moved
south through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and in 1523-24 they conquered the
highland Maya-speaking tribes of Guatemala and El Salvador.

page 106
Suspecting that he might be replaced, the president of the first
"audiencia", Nunyo de Guzman, left Mexico City in December, 1529, with a large
army, hoping to secure fame and fortune by conquering a vast area to the
northwest later called New Galicia. Here, from Mihoacan to Sinaloa the
self-apppointed governor pillaged the land, burned villages, enslaved thousands
of Indians, and forced others into hiding. One of his techniques was to goad
friendly Indians into rebellion, thereby giving the Spaniards a legal pretext
for enslaving them.

From "The Early Spanish Main", by Carl Ortwin Sauer, copyright 1966
page 87
The first Indian uprising took place late in 1494. To protect the dangerous
Yaque river crossing, a fort was built, called Magdalena, at the place where
Hojeda had stirred up trouble the previous spring. This was Macorix territory
and these Indians seem to have been less docile than the rest. The fort was
attacked, perhaps burned, by the cacique or a nearby Pueblo and 10 Spaniards
were killed. An expeditonary force from the Isabela trounced the rebels, took
numerous prisoners, and drove the chief into hiding. This punitive expedition
in Macorix country began slave raids in Espanola. Las Casas stated briefly that
many prisoners were taken of the men of the cacique Guatigara because he had
killed the 10 Christians. 500 of these were sent as slaves, to be sold in
Castille, in the 4 ships of Antonio de Torres that sailed on February 24, 1495.

National Geographic July 2001
Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, who conquered Cuba in 1511, lusted for gold,
wresting it from natives and working them to death to find more

From "Triumphs and Tragedy", by Ramon Eduardo Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 53
....There were many Indian captives from the recent battle. Instead of
releasing them, he planned to ship the Taino prisoners in bondage to Spain.
There, in the slave market of Seville, they would fetch profits to pay the
expenses of his enterprise.
So some 1,600 luckless Taino captives were rounded up and taken to the port
at Isabela. Only 500 of the captives, however, could be jammed into the dark,
dank holds of the four caravels returning to Spain. So "the best males and
females", like prize cattle, were selected for shipment. Others were held as
slaves to the colonists in Isabela.
The Indians taken aboard the Spanish vessels fared miserably, huddled naked
in the dark, smelly depths of the ships without warmth or adequate sanitation.
Almost half of them perished and were thrown overboard during the stormy
crossing. Those who survived to reach Spain were in such poor condition that
most soon died afterward.

page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the Spanish
colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal between
1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking of
women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of Santo
Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."

page61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether with
husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when they
were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian to
death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns. When
they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with bloodhounds. Cortes
and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into slavery.
Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly that
the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos drove
their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of their
goods.

page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of them
were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo, and the
Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times placing
him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco region of
the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them to the
sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000 Indian
slaves in 1542....

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ve0012)
The next of Venezuela's native riches to be extracted by the Spanish was its
people. Slave raiding, which began in the Peninsula de Paria and gradually
moved inland, helped supply the vast labor needs in Panama and the Caribbean
islands, where gold and silver bullion from Mexico and Peru were transshipped.
These slave raids engendered intense hatred and resentment among Venezuela's
native population, emotions that fueled more than a century of continual
low-intensity warfare.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ni0014)
Spain showed little interest in Nicaragua throughout this period, mostly
because it was more interested in exploiting the vast riches found in Mexico
and Peru. By 1531 many Spanish settlers in Nicaragua had left for South America
to join Francisco Pizarro's efforts to conquer the wealthy regions of the Inca
Empire. Native Nicaraguans settlements also decreased in size because the
indigenous inhabitants were exported to work in Peruvian mines; an estimated
200,000 native Nicaraguans were exported as slaves to South America from 1528
to 1540.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+hn0018)
By the end of the seventeenth century, governing Honduras had become a
frustrating, thankless task. Only Comayagua, with 144 families, and
Tegucigalpa, with 135, had over 100 Spanish settlers. The province boasted
little in the way of education or culture. The lack of good ports, especially
on the Pacific coast, limited contacts with the outside world. Whenever
possible, the Spanish colonists forced native people to move to the Tegucigalpa
area, where they were available for labor in the mines.

From "The Tainos, the people who welcomed Columbus", by Francine Jacobs,
copyright 1992
page 60
So now it became a deliberate policy of the colonists to incite the Indians to
resist mistreatment in order to arrest and condemn them to slavery. 300 Tainos
were immediately accused and convicted of rebellious or warlike acts by the
Adelantado and promptly shipped off to Spain to be sold into lifetime slavery.

page 65
So Bartolome returned with fresh forces and attacked the Macorix anew, waging
war for 3 months, until the end, he had subdued them and recaptured Guarionex.
600 Macorix were also taken captive. Now Columbus had prisoners of war to
send to Spain. Pleased to have valuable slaves to ship home, the Admiral loaded
the captives aboard the two ships that sailed for Spain in October 1498.


faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-23 03:39:07 UTC
Permalink
***@netscape.net says:
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the white
man. >>

From "The Tainos, the people who welcomed Columbus", by Francine Jacobs,
copyright 1992
page 52
Though the admiral had directed that the Tainos be treated kindly and with
respect, he had turned loose an army of hungry soldiers. The Spaniards swept
across the once tranquil plains like a swarm of locusts, leaving ruin and
famine in their path. Taino villages were sacked, and the little food stored in
their huts was taken. The oppressed Tainos fled their villages, abandoned their
carefully cultivated conucos and became refugees in their own land.

page 53
The Spanish depended upon the Indians to supply their food, but many Tainos had
fled their homes and conucos and there was hunger on the island. The Tainos
suffered most; an estimated 50,000 of them would perish before year's end. The
ancient Taino civilization and the simple farming economy on which it depended
were being destroyed by the Europeans.....
Margarite, insulted by criticism of the conduct of his troops, left Hispaniola
and sailed for Spain. His soldiers, abandoned by their commander, now became
renegades and continued to harass and to terrorize the Indians in the central
districts. The rampage went on, unabated, into 1495. The tormented Indians
continued to flee this brutality; they hid, starving in the rugged
countryside.....
....There were many Indian captives from the recent battle. Instead of
releasing them, he planned to ship the Taino prisoners in bondage to Spain.
There, in the slave market of Seville, they would fetch profits to pay the
expenses of his enterprise.
So some 1,600 luckless Taino captives were rounded up and taken to the port
at Isabela. Only 500 of the captives, however, could be jammed into the dark,
dank holds of the four caravels returning to Spain. So "the best males and
females", like prize cattle, were selected for shipment. Others were held as
slaves to the colonists in Isabela.
The Indians taken aboard the Spanish vessels fared miserably, huddled naked
in the dark, smelly depths of the ships without warmth or adequate sanitation.
Almost half of them perished and were thrown overboard during the stormy
crossing. Those who survived to reach Spain were in such poor condition that
most soon died afterward.

page 57
The Tainos in the central districts were now completely dispirited, and
Columbus moved to take cruel advantage of them. He imposed a severe tax upon
every Indian male 14 years of age or older living in Cibao and the Vega. Every
3 months, or 4 times a year, each man was required to provide a quantity of
gold dust, sufficient to fill a small copper bell or be put to death.
The Tainos suffered horribly under the tribute. They found themselves in a
terrible trap. On the one hand, the Indians faced starvation. On the other
hand, they faced death if they failed to provide the required tax. So, many
Tainos gave up everything and fled to the mountains. Homeless in their own
land, they were hunted down like animals by the Spaniards. Numbers of Indians
decided to take their own lives rather than submit to the white man's tyranny.
They committed suicide, deliberately drinking raw, poisonous cassava juice.
Those who tried to resist the oppressors were tortured and killed.
Archeological and historical evidence leads experts today to believe that the
Taino population of Hispaniola was about 1 million when Columbus first arrived
in 1492. By 1496, a third of these native people had perished.

page 60
In March or 1496, Columbus returned to Spain and left Bartolome behind in
charge of the colony. Months later, a letter from the Admiral arrived, advising
the Adelantado that a religious controversy in Spain about the enslavement of
the Indians had been resolved. It was decided that making slaves ot the Tainos
was acceptable only if the Indians were taken as prisoners of war. In other
words, it was necessary only to accuse the Tainos of fighting back in order to
deprive them of their freedom.
So now it became a deliberate policy of the colonists to incite the Indians
to resist mistreatment in order to arrest and condemn them to slavery. 300
Tainos were immediately accused and convicted of rebellious or warlike acts by
the Adelantado and promptly shipped off to Spain to be sold into lifetime
slavery.

page 65
So Bartolome returned with fresh forces and attacked the Macorix anew, waging
war for 3 months, until the end, he had subdued them and recaptured Guarionex.
600 Macorix were also taken captive. Now Columbus had prisoners of war to
send to Spain. Pleased to have valuable slaves to ship home, the Admiral loaded
the captives aboard the two ships that sailed for Spain in October 1498.

page 91
By 1548, less than 500 Tainos of pure blood remained on Hispaniola....
Although mestizo children, the offspring of Spanish and Indian parents lived on
Hispaniola from 1493 onward, the genes of West Indians today are overwhelmingly
of African and European origin.
The mineral and agricultural wealth sought by the Spanish conquerors did not
exist in the islands. The riches of the West Indies were their people, the
Tainos, and they were destroyed. There are no longer Tainos planting manioc, no
conucos, no joyous areytos and no proud caciques to greet current visitors. The
Tainos have been a forgotten people, a bit of history encased in a museum,
their story untold.

faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
2004-05-23 03:39:33 UTC
Permalink
***@netscape.net says:
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the white
man. >>

From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon Eduardo
Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the Spanish
colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal between
1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking of
women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of Santo
Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the Indian,
helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and enlarge the
boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on Tenochtitlan,
Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish soldiers
had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the arid
region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly completed until
the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from 1527 to
1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of Cortes.
With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado", Montejo
sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification of
Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his father
had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes sent
Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose Spanish
control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into Chiapas,
where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527, when
Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman, a
corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high places.
Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a reputation
for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y cuchillo", the
man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts one stood
out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to sweep
the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic Spaniards
pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region baptized
Nueva Galicia.

page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether with
husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when they
were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian to
death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns. When
they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with bloodhounds. Cortes
and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into slavery.
Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly that
the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos drove
their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of their
goods.

page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before him some
19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose notorious
trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In Mihoacan, a
Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town plaza, laid
quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the Indians
were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in Mihoacan
had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On the next
day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged himself to
escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of the
Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2 centuries.
Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught, whipped.

page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the society of New
Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of mining,
shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million people who
dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million survived over a
century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as dissenting
sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian life is
still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the decline come
to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating repercussions..
Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a ruthless
Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death of
millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich, if not
with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars who
defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and monasteries,
they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission lands, where
European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic shrines,
usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of Indian
servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy and
their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man by
reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of townsfolk
who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which exposed
them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also, upset the
ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for their
buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren of
trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected slopes; when
the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and gullies.
Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding to its
woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or corn and
squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food supply.
Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by cattle.
The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise, only
students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident, Spaniards
altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic experience
because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise. The
Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that not a
vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none of the
major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only groups
of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived. Still,
even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of the
Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting even the
native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa farmers.
Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the arrival of
the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and drank
alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for example, a
people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a major vice
and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians were
also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth for
zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the 16th
century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their bosoms
naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long their
traditional blouse.

page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and so they
fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.

page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of them
were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo, and the
Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times placing
him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco region of
the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them to the
sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000 Indian
slaves in 1542....

faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Latinguyny
2004-05-23 11:48:57 UTC
Permalink
How do you know if Hispanic's aren't part of the teams that help develop new
technologies? Maybe Hispanics didn't invent the television or your
vibrator, but you don't jack shit about us. People like you when you have
no job, miserable and feel inferior you start to put down others. The fact
is and I won't respond to anymore to this thread is that Hispanics, (and you
deliberately misspell the word Hispanic as Hispanicks to belittle us, or is
it that you are just plan stupid) are the largest minority group in the
United States now and we are not going away, soon we will be running
everything, deciding who the next president of the US will be and might I
add a lot more. By the year 2040 Hispanic's won't be considered a minority.
So if you don't like Hispanic's (and I would assume a lot of other people) I
would suggest that you pack your belongings and move into a hole somewhere.

You don't think that we don't contribute to technologies, read on.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico -- This island has become a gold mine for corporate
recruiters looking for talented Hispanic engineering graduates.

The reason? The University of Puerto Rico's School of Engineering in
Mayaguez boasts the largest number of Hispanic engineering students in the
United States.

You read it right. The public university located on the western coast of the
3,500-square-mile island hosts 4,593 engineering students. Another local
university, the privately-owned Universidad Politécnica, places second, with
3,776. They each have more than double the number of Hispanic engineering
students as are enrolled at Texas A&M University, the main source of
Hispanic engineers in the continental United States.

Puerto Rico's large pool of engineering students is not going unnoticed by
U.S. employers. In October, UPR's job fair had a record-setting number of
companies and federal agencies recruiting engineers: 74. The list includes
the likes of Motorola, Raytheon Systems, IBM, the U.S. Department of Energy,
and the U.S. Geological Survey.

"Some recruiters say we are the best kept secret in the engineering
industry," says Nancy Nieves, placement department director at UPR's
Mayaguez campus. "Recruiters are coming down by word of mouth."

Majority Status Helps

The 3.8 million Puerto Ricans are not a minority in their homeland, but
considering the island's small size, bleak economic indicators, and a
smaller pool of potential college students, the enrollment figures are
eye-popping.

A closer look at Puerto Rico reveals unique factors that boost sign-ups at
engineering schools.

The main one: a college degree has become the ticket out of economic
stagnation. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing emphasis on
educational attainment to secure better earnings and job opportunities.
Strong demand from the local market and the continental U.S. for engineers,
coupled with the proliferation of colleges, low tuition costs, and generous
student aid, have eased this task.

"If a person doesn't study in Puerto Rico, it's for lack of interest," says
Antonio Magriñá Rodríguez, research director for The College Board office in
Puerto Rico. "When it comes to college studies, the offer is greater than
the demand. There is a strong effort to promote education among our young
population."

Plenty of Schools

By one measure, there are 45 private and public colleges in Puerto Rico
offering at least a bachelor's degree. Only UPR and Politécnica have schools
of engineering, though other institutions offer bachelor's degrees in one or
two engineering fields.

Academic observers caution against drawing comparisons between Puerto
Rico-based Hispanics and stateside Latinos, mainly because the first group
does not face language and racial barriers. But statistics do help explain
why there is a larger pool of engineering students on the Caribbean island.
Take educational attainment rates. Hispanic Americans' 25 percent
high-school dropout rate, the highest of all ethnic groups, is significantly
higher than Puerto Rico's 16.7 percent. According to Puerto Rico's
Department of Education, the local rate is believed to be lower, because it
does not reflect the high mobility of families between the island and the
continental U.S.

"The job market in the continental U.S. offers good job prospects for
graduates of high school or trade schools, but not in Puerto Rico," says
Augusto Amato, an economist at Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the island's
largest bank. "It's hard enough to get a job with a bachelor's degree. That
is reason enough to finish high school and enroll in college."

Dog Eat Dog out There

It's survival of the fittest, considering Puerto Rico's 13 percent
unemployment rate is the highest nationwide and almost triple that of the
U.S. mainland. And in spite of a strong economy during recent years, the
prospects of job creation are dim, because economic growth rates have been
inadequate for a developing economy in which the income levels of 59 percent
of the population fall within the U.S. federal government's poverty
guidelines.

According to a major 1994 College Board report on college education in
Puerto Rico, the limited job opportunities awaiting high-school graduates
and the availability of the Pell grant incline many to the college option,
though not all complete their degrees. With starting annual salaries that
hover around $25,000, engineering has become a highly coveted career,
especially since demand for these professionals is also strong.

A recent Banco Popular survey of 140 major Puerto Rico-based employers shows
a need for technical professionals here, particularly computer, mechanical,
and electrical engineers.


Financial Pressures

Puerto Rico's high cost of living, buoyed by high real estate prices and
dependence on exports, prompts many workers to seek better job
opportunities. Most of Politécnica's students already hold full-time jobs
and are turning to engineering as a way to move up the ranks, says Gilberto
Vélez, dean of engineering. That's the case with the more than 100 workers
from the government-owned Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority that attend
Politécnica. The average annual salary of the agency's 558 engineers is
$50,000, a good income in light of Puerto Rico's $30,860 family average.

"The title of engineer enjoys prestige, and there is demand for them," says
Vélez. "A career in engineering also offers the flexibility of being your
own boss."

There also has been a local shift to pursue degrees in science and
engineering, a reverse of the trend in the continental United States, where
more students are majoring in humanities and social and behavioral sciences.

No Slacking Up

The Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of
Engineering Societies reports that the number of B.Sc. degrees awarded in
engineering has decreased by 17.2 percent in the past 10 years.

Not in Puerto Rico. While 8 percent of all SAT test-takers in the U.S.
mentioned engineering as the intended college major in 1999, Puerto Rico's
figure is higher, at 12 percent. A comparable figure is not available for
Hispanic Americans, but a report put out by the University of California's
Higher Education Research Institute says that Hispanics accounted for only
5.1 percent of freshmen intending to major in engineering in 1996.

"Hispanic engineering enrollment is growing, but very slowly and not on
parity," says Al Staropoli, national director for math and science for
Aspira, a nonprofit organization devoted to the education and leadership
development of Latino youth.

Rock-Bottom Costs

Part of the reason why a larger share of Puerto Ricans opt for college is
the relatively low cost of higher education there, local observers say.

UPR is the number one choice for most high-school graduates, not only
because of its world-class engineering program but for its rock-bottom
tuition. With a college credit at $30, a one-year, 36-credit program costs
about $1,345 in tuition and fees. That pales in comparison with the $3,489
annual average for in-state students at U.S. public universities. Even
Politécnica's estimated $4,500 in annual tuition and fees is less than
one-third of the $17,197 average for private universities in the U.S.

The lower cost does not come at the expense of quality, observers say.
Seventh largest in the U.S., UPR's engineering school is considered to be
among the nation's 10 best. Not only do three-fourths of its professors have
Ph.D.s, but the 170-credit program takes five years to complete, one more
than at most stateside universities. A well-rounded education that includes
courses in humanities and social sciences and exposes students to a basic
knowledge of other engineering fields is often cited as one of the school's
salient points, says Nieves.

Corporate Support

Reinforcing the curriculum are cooperative education agreements with several
companies and government agencies.

"UPR's engineering school is without a doubt one of the best schools
nationwide," says Nelly González, Andersen Consulting's diversity director
for North America. "It has an intense and rigorous curriculum that focuses
both on the technical and people skills."

González says she came down reluctantly three years ago after meeting Nieves
at a stateside conference. She was immediately surprised with the quantity
and quality of graduating students and their willingness to relocate
stateside. Since then, the world's largest management and technology
consulting firm has hired more than 80 UPR graduates, the majority of whom
are engineers.

"The experience has been excellent," says González.

UPR draws the best of the best of the island's high-school graduates, many
of whom have taken advanced placement courses. For the current academic
year, only half of the 1,774 applicants were admitted. To gain admission
into the popular electric and computer engineering programs, for instance,
students must have a GPA of at least 3.5 and high admission test scores,
says Jorge Rivera Santos, acting dean of the University of Puerto Rico's
School of Engineering.

Prep Courses Required

It's easier to get a foothold in Politécnica's School of Engineering, which
this academic year admitted 1,200 of the 1,600 applicants. Still, weaker
academic performers must take up to 24 credits of remedial courses before
they dip into the engineering programs, which, like UPR's, are accredited by
the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Stateside
recruiters have taken notice and are increasingly scouting local talent at
both UPR and Politécnica.

"It's true most of these companies come thinking of their minority quota,
but in the end they continue coming for the quality of our students," says
UPR's Nieves.

Ken Acosta, cooperative education recruitment coordinator of the National
Security Agency, agrees.

"Puerto Rico has the best caliber students when it comes to engineering,"
says Acosta. "They have good GPAs in addition to being responsible, hard
workers."

The NSA, the U.S. Defense Department unit that handles signal intelligence,
recruits between 10 and 20 local students annually. Given the quality of
candidates, they easily could exceed those figures, but the agency aims at
diversified recruiting. Acosta says the agency gets good Hispanic candidates
from the mainland as well but concedes the pool is not as large as Puerto
Rico's.

There is also a fierce competition for the few Hispanic engineers graduating
from stateside universities, so Puerto Rico is an excellent alternative,
added Andersen's González.

Drain, or Growth Opportunity?

Local politicians and economists decry the brain drain, especially of
students trained at the publicly funded UPR, which sees more than half of
its graduates leave for stateside jobs. But the truth is that the local
market cannot absorb them all.

"The local job market is tight, and they are offered very competitive
salaries," says Rivera Santos.

Most of the corporate recruiters offer pay in the $40,000-plus range. The
best a starting engineer can do locally is the $38,000 paid by major
multinational companies located in Puerto Rico, but these offers are the
exception rather than the rule, says Nieves.

"Some of our graduates that take up stateside jobs beat right away the
$40,000 annual salary average for our Ph.D. professors," quips Rivera
Santos.

There is an added bonus in recruiting locally. Puerto Rico is also a bounty
of hard-to-find female engineers, who made up only 19.4 percent of all
first-year, U.S. engineering enrollments in 1994, according to Engineering
Workforce Commission reports. Female engineering students account for 35
percent of UPR's student body, a figure that also puzzles UPR
administrators.

"In Puerto Rico, we have access not only to talented Hispanics and
technology but also to female engineers," says González. "We feel we have
found a pot of gold."

© Copyright 2001 by Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology



We Hispanic's are the largest minority group in the United States now, and
we are still growing. Soon we will be running everthing. People that put
down others is because they are jelous, don't have a job and needs to pick
on others to gratify themselves.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the white
man. >>
From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon Eduardo
Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the Spanish
colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal between
1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking of
women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of Santo
Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the Indian,
helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and enlarge the
boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on Tenochtitlan,
Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish soldiers
had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the arid
region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly completed until
the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from 1527 to
1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of Cortes.
With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado", Montejo
sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification of
Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his father
had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes sent
Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose Spanish
control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into Chiapas,
where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527, when
Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman, a
corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high places.
Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a reputation
for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y cuchillo", the
man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts one stood
out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to sweep
the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic Spaniards
pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region baptized
Nueva Galicia.
page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether with
husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when they
were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian to
death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns. When
they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with bloodhounds. Cortes
and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into slavery.
Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly that
the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos drove
their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of their
goods.
page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before him some
19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose notorious
trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In Mihoacan, a
Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town plaza, laid
quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the Indians
were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in Mihoacan
had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On the next
day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged himself to
escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of the
Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2 centuries.
Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught, whipped.
page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the society of New
Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of mining,
shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million people who
dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million survived over a
century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as dissenting
sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian life is
still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the decline come
to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating repercussions..
Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a ruthless
Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death of
millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich, if not
with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars who
defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and monasteries,
they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission lands, where
European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic shrines,
usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of Indian
servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy and
their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man by
reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of townsfolk
who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which exposed
them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also, upset the
ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for their
buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren of
trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected slopes; when
the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and gullies.
Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding to its
woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or corn and
squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food supply.
Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by cattle.
The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise, only
students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident, Spaniards
altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic experience
because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise. The
Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that not a
vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none of the
major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only groups
of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived. Still,
even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of the
Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting even the
native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa farmers.
Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the arrival of
the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and drank
alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for example, a
people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a major vice
and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians were
also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth for
zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the 16th
century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their bosoms
naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long their
traditional blouse.
page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and so they
fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.
page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of them
were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo, and the
Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times placing
him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco region of
the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them to the
sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000 Indian
slaves in 1542....
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Jose Millan Astray
2004-05-23 19:33:49 UTC
Permalink
Excellent post Latinguyny!
I am doing my part by steering middle school students to the sciences and
math and by enforcing high academic standards.

V/r
Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
Post by Latinguyny
How do you know if Hispanic's aren't part of the teams that help develop new
technologies? Maybe Hispanics didn't invent the television or your
vibrator, but you don't jack shit about us. People like you when you have
no job, miserable and feel inferior you start to put down others. The fact
is and I won't respond to anymore to this thread is that Hispanics, (and you
deliberately misspell the word Hispanic as Hispanicks to belittle us, or is
it that you are just plan stupid) are the largest minority group in the
United States now and we are not going away, soon we will be running
everything, deciding who the next president of the US will be and might I
add a lot more. By the year 2040 Hispanic's won't be considered a minority.
So if you don't like Hispanic's (and I would assume a lot of other people) I
would suggest that you pack your belongings and move into a hole somewhere.
You don't think that we don't contribute to technologies, read on.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico -- This island has become a gold mine for corporate
recruiters looking for talented Hispanic engineering graduates.
The reason? The University of Puerto Rico's School of Engineering in
Mayaguez boasts the largest number of Hispanic engineering students in the
United States.
You read it right. The public university located on the western coast of the
3,500-square-mile island hosts 4,593 engineering students. Another local
university, the privately-owned Universidad Politécnica, places second, with
3,776. They each have more than double the number of Hispanic engineering
students as are enrolled at Texas A&M University, the main source of
Hispanic engineers in the continental United States.
Puerto Rico's large pool of engineering students is not going unnoticed by
U.S. employers. In October, UPR's job fair had a record-setting number of
companies and federal agencies recruiting engineers: 74. The list includes
the likes of Motorola, Raytheon Systems, IBM, the U.S. Department of Energy,
and the U.S. Geological Survey.
"Some recruiters say we are the best kept secret in the engineering
industry," says Nancy Nieves, placement department director at UPR's
Mayaguez campus. "Recruiters are coming down by word of mouth."
Majority Status Helps
The 3.8 million Puerto Ricans are not a minority in their homeland, but
considering the island's small size, bleak economic indicators, and a
smaller pool of potential college students, the enrollment figures are
eye-popping.
A closer look at Puerto Rico reveals unique factors that boost sign-ups at
engineering schools.
The main one: a college degree has become the ticket out of economic
stagnation. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing emphasis on
educational attainment to secure better earnings and job opportunities.
Strong demand from the local market and the continental U.S. for engineers,
coupled with the proliferation of colleges, low tuition costs, and generous
student aid, have eased this task.
"If a person doesn't study in Puerto Rico, it's for lack of interest," says
Antonio Magriñá Rodríguez, research director for The College Board office in
Puerto Rico. "When it comes to college studies, the offer is greater than
the demand. There is a strong effort to promote education among our young
population."
Plenty of Schools
By one measure, there are 45 private and public colleges in Puerto Rico
offering at least a bachelor's degree. Only UPR and Politécnica have schools
of engineering, though other institutions offer bachelor's degrees in one or
two engineering fields.
Academic observers caution against drawing comparisons between Puerto
Rico-based Hispanics and stateside Latinos, mainly because the first group
does not face language and racial barriers. But statistics do help explain
why there is a larger pool of engineering students on the Caribbean island.
Take educational attainment rates. Hispanic Americans' 25 percent
high-school dropout rate, the highest of all ethnic groups, is
significantly
Post by Latinguyny
higher than Puerto Rico's 16.7 percent. According to Puerto Rico's
Department of Education, the local rate is believed to be lower, because it
does not reflect the high mobility of families between the island and the
continental U.S.
"The job market in the continental U.S. offers good job prospects for
graduates of high school or trade schools, but not in Puerto Rico," says
Augusto Amato, an economist at Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the island's
largest bank. "It's hard enough to get a job with a bachelor's degree. That
is reason enough to finish high school and enroll in college."
Dog Eat Dog out There
It's survival of the fittest, considering Puerto Rico's 13 percent
unemployment rate is the highest nationwide and almost triple that of the
U.S. mainland. And in spite of a strong economy during recent years, the
prospects of job creation are dim, because economic growth rates have been
inadequate for a developing economy in which the income levels of 59 percent
of the population fall within the U.S. federal government's poverty
guidelines.
According to a major 1994 College Board report on college education in
Puerto Rico, the limited job opportunities awaiting high-school graduates
and the availability of the Pell grant incline many to the college option,
though not all complete their degrees. With starting annual salaries that
hover around $25,000, engineering has become a highly coveted career,
especially since demand for these professionals is also strong.
A recent Banco Popular survey of 140 major Puerto Rico-based employers shows
a need for technical professionals here, particularly computer, mechanical,
and electrical engineers.
Financial Pressures
Puerto Rico's high cost of living, buoyed by high real estate prices and
dependence on exports, prompts many workers to seek better job
opportunities. Most of Politécnica's students already hold full-time jobs
and are turning to engineering as a way to move up the ranks, says Gilberto
Vélez, dean of engineering. That's the case with the more than 100 workers
from the government-owned Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority that attend
Politécnica. The average annual salary of the agency's 558 engineers is
$50,000, a good income in light of Puerto Rico's $30,860 family average.
"The title of engineer enjoys prestige, and there is demand for them," says
Vélez. "A career in engineering also offers the flexibility of being your
own boss."
There also has been a local shift to pursue degrees in science and
engineering, a reverse of the trend in the continental United States, where
more students are majoring in humanities and social and behavioral sciences.
No Slacking Up
The Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of
Engineering Societies reports that the number of B.Sc. degrees awarded in
engineering has decreased by 17.2 percent in the past 10 years.
Not in Puerto Rico. While 8 percent of all SAT test-takers in the U.S.
mentioned engineering as the intended college major in 1999, Puerto Rico's
figure is higher, at 12 percent. A comparable figure is not available for
Hispanic Americans, but a report put out by the University of California's
Higher Education Research Institute says that Hispanics accounted for only
5.1 percent of freshmen intending to major in engineering in 1996.
"Hispanic engineering enrollment is growing, but very slowly and not on
parity," says Al Staropoli, national director for math and science for
Aspira, a nonprofit organization devoted to the education and leadership
development of Latino youth.
Rock-Bottom Costs
Part of the reason why a larger share of Puerto Ricans opt for college is
the relatively low cost of higher education there, local observers say.
UPR is the number one choice for most high-school graduates, not only
because of its world-class engineering program but for its rock-bottom
tuition. With a college credit at $30, a one-year, 36-credit program costs
about $1,345 in tuition and fees. That pales in comparison with the $3,489
annual average for in-state students at U.S. public universities. Even
Politécnica's estimated $4,500 in annual tuition and fees is less than
one-third of the $17,197 average for private universities in the U.S.
The lower cost does not come at the expense of quality, observers say.
Seventh largest in the U.S., UPR's engineering school is considered to be
among the nation's 10 best. Not only do three-fourths of its professors have
Ph.D.s, but the 170-credit program takes five years to complete, one more
than at most stateside universities. A well-rounded education that includes
courses in humanities and social sciences and exposes students to a basic
knowledge of other engineering fields is often cited as one of the school's
salient points, says Nieves.
Corporate Support
Reinforcing the curriculum are cooperative education agreements with several
companies and government agencies.
"UPR's engineering school is without a doubt one of the best schools
nationwide," says Nelly González, Andersen Consulting's diversity director
for North America. "It has an intense and rigorous curriculum that focuses
both on the technical and people skills."
González says she came down reluctantly three years ago after meeting Nieves
at a stateside conference. She was immediately surprised with the quantity
and quality of graduating students and their willingness to relocate
stateside. Since then, the world's largest management and technology
consulting firm has hired more than 80 UPR graduates, the majority of whom
are engineers.
"The experience has been excellent," says González.
UPR draws the best of the best of the island's high-school graduates, many
of whom have taken advanced placement courses. For the current academic
year, only half of the 1,774 applicants were admitted. To gain admission
into the popular electric and computer engineering programs, for instance,
students must have a GPA of at least 3.5 and high admission test scores,
says Jorge Rivera Santos, acting dean of the University of Puerto Rico's
School of Engineering.
Prep Courses Required
It's easier to get a foothold in Politécnica's School of Engineering, which
this academic year admitted 1,200 of the 1,600 applicants. Still, weaker
academic performers must take up to 24 credits of remedial courses before
they dip into the engineering programs, which, like UPR's, are accredited by
the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Stateside
recruiters have taken notice and are increasingly scouting local talent at
both UPR and Politécnica.
"It's true most of these companies come thinking of their minority quota,
but in the end they continue coming for the quality of our students," says
UPR's Nieves.
Ken Acosta, cooperative education recruitment coordinator of the National
Security Agency, agrees.
"Puerto Rico has the best caliber students when it comes to engineering,"
says Acosta. "They have good GPAs in addition to being responsible, hard
workers."
The NSA, the U.S. Defense Department unit that handles signal
intelligence,
Post by Latinguyny
recruits between 10 and 20 local students annually. Given the quality of
candidates, they easily could exceed those figures, but the agency aims at
diversified recruiting. Acosta says the agency gets good Hispanic candidates
from the mainland as well but concedes the pool is not as large as Puerto
Rico's.
There is also a fierce competition for the few Hispanic engineers graduating
from stateside universities, so Puerto Rico is an excellent alternative,
added Andersen's González.
Drain, or Growth Opportunity?
Local politicians and economists decry the brain drain, especially of
students trained at the publicly funded UPR, which sees more than half of
its graduates leave for stateside jobs. But the truth is that the local
market cannot absorb them all.
"The local job market is tight, and they are offered very competitive
salaries," says Rivera Santos.
Most of the corporate recruiters offer pay in the $40,000-plus range. The
best a starting engineer can do locally is the $38,000 paid by major
multinational companies located in Puerto Rico, but these offers are the
exception rather than the rule, says Nieves.
"Some of our graduates that take up stateside jobs beat right away the
$40,000 annual salary average for our Ph.D. professors," quips Rivera
Santos.
There is an added bonus in recruiting locally. Puerto Rico is also a bounty
of hard-to-find female engineers, who made up only 19.4 percent of all
first-year, U.S. engineering enrollments in 1994, according to Engineering
Workforce Commission reports. Female engineering students account for 35
percent of UPR's student body, a figure that also puzzles UPR
administrators.
"In Puerto Rico, we have access not only to talented Hispanics and
technology but also to female engineers," says González. "We feel we have
found a pot of gold."
© Copyright 2001 by Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology
We Hispanic's are the largest minority group in the United States now, and
we are still growing. Soon we will be running everthing. People that put
down others is because they are jelous, don't have a job and needs to pick
on others to gratify themselves.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the
white
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
man. >>
From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon
Eduardo
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the
Spanish
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal
between
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking of
women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of
Santo
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the Indian,
helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and
enlarge
Post by Latinguyny
the
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on
Tenochtitlan,
Post by Latinguyny
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish
soldiers
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the arid
region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly
completed
Post by Latinguyny
until
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from
1527
Post by Latinguyny
to
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of
Cortes.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado", Montejo
sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification of
Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his
father
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes sent
Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose
Spanish
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into
Chiapas,
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527,
when
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman, a
corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high
places.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a
reputation
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y
cuchillo",
Post by Latinguyny
the
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts one
stood
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to
sweep
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic Spaniards
pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region
baptized
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Nueva Galicia.
page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether with
husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when
they
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian to
death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns.
When
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with bloodhounds.
Cortes
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into
slavery.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly
that
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos
drove
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of their
goods.
page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before
him
Post by Latinguyny
some
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose
notorious
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In
Mihoacan, a
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town
plaza,
Post by Latinguyny
laid
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the
Indians
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in
Mihoacan
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On
the
Post by Latinguyny
next
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged
himself
Post by Latinguyny
to
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of the
Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2 centuries.
Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught,
whipped.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the society
of New
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of
mining,
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million
people who
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million survived
over a
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as dissenting
sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian
life is
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the
decline
Post by Latinguyny
come
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating
repercussions..
Post by Latinguyny
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a ruthless
Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death of
millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich,
if
Post by Latinguyny
not
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars who
defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and
monasteries,
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission
lands,
Post by Latinguyny
where
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic
shrines,
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of
Indian
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servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy and
their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man by
reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of
townsfolk
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who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which
exposed
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them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also,
upset the
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ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for their
buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren of
trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected
slopes;
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when
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the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and
gullies.
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Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding
to
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its
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woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or
corn
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and
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squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food
supply.
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Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by
cattle.
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The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise,
only
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students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident,
Spaniards
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altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic
experience
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because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise. The
Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that
not a
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vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none
of
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the
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major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only
groups
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of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived.
Still,
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even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of the
Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting even
the
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native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa
farmers.
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Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the
arrival of
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the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and drank
alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for
example, a
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people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a
major
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vice
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and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians
were
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also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth for
zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the 16th
century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their bosoms
naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long their
traditional blouse.
page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and
so
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they
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fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.
page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of
them
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were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo,
and
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the
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Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times
placing
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him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco
region of
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the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them
to
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the
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sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000
Indian
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slaves in 1542....
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-24 00:40:16 UTC
Permalink
How can YOU enforce "high" standards when you are a mediocre vendepatria?

"high" standards and vendepatria are a classic oxymoron!

You receive a degree from a substandard program in a substandard
university which makes you a substandard teacher.

Hose?
Post by Jose Millan Astray
Excellent post Latinguyny!
I am doing my part by steering middle school students to the sciences and
math and by enforcing high academic standards.
V/r
Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
Post by Latinguyny
How do you know if Hispanic's aren't part of the teams that help develop
new
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technologies? Maybe Hispanics didn't invent the television or your
vibrator, but you don't jack shit about us. People like you when you
have
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no job, miserable and feel inferior you start to put down others. The
fact
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is and I won't respond to anymore to this thread is that Hispanics, (and
you
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deliberately misspell the word Hispanic as Hispanicks to belittle us, or
is
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it that you are just plan stupid) are the largest minority group in the
United States now and we are not going away, soon we will be running
everything, deciding who the next president of the US will be and might I
add a lot more. By the year 2040 Hispanic's won't be considered a
minority.
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So if you don't like Hispanic's (and I would assume a lot of other people)
I
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would suggest that you pack your belongings and move into a hole
somewhere.
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You don't think that we don't contribute to technologies, read on.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico -- This island has become a gold mine for corporate
recruiters looking for talented Hispanic engineering graduates.
The reason? The University of Puerto Rico's School of Engineering in
Mayaguez boasts the largest number of Hispanic engineering students in the
United States.
You read it right. The public university located on the western coast of
the
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3,500-square-mile island hosts 4,593 engineering students. Another local
university, the privately-owned Universidad Politécnica, places second,
with
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3,776. They each have more than double the number of Hispanic engineering
students as are enrolled at Texas A&M University, the main source of
Hispanic engineers in the continental United States.
Puerto Rico's large pool of engineering students is not going unnoticed by
U.S. employers. In October, UPR's job fair had a record-setting number of
companies and federal agencies recruiting engineers: 74. The list includes
the likes of Motorola, Raytheon Systems, IBM, the U.S. Department of
Energy,
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and the U.S. Geological Survey.
"Some recruiters say we are the best kept secret in the engineering
industry," says Nancy Nieves, placement department director at UPR's
Mayaguez campus. "Recruiters are coming down by word of mouth."
Majority Status Helps
The 3.8 million Puerto Ricans are not a minority in their homeland, but
considering the island's small size, bleak economic indicators, and a
smaller pool of potential college students, the enrollment figures are
eye-popping.
A closer look at Puerto Rico reveals unique factors that boost sign-ups at
engineering schools.
The main one: a college degree has become the ticket out of economic
stagnation. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing emphasis on
educational attainment to secure better earnings and job opportunities.
Strong demand from the local market and the continental U.S. for
engineers,
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coupled with the proliferation of colleges, low tuition costs, and
generous
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student aid, have eased this task.
"If a person doesn't study in Puerto Rico, it's for lack of interest,"
says
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Antonio Magriñá Rodríguez, research director for The College Board office
in
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Puerto Rico. "When it comes to college studies, the offer is greater than
the demand. There is a strong effort to promote education among our young
population."
Plenty of Schools
By one measure, there are 45 private and public colleges in Puerto Rico
offering at least a bachelor's degree. Only UPR and Politécnica have
schools
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of engineering, though other institutions offer bachelor's degrees in one
or
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two engineering fields.
Academic observers caution against drawing comparisons between Puerto
Rico-based Hispanics and stateside Latinos, mainly because the first group
does not face language and racial barriers. But statistics do help explain
why there is a larger pool of engineering students on the Caribbean
island.
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Take educational attainment rates. Hispanic Americans' 25 percent
high-school dropout rate, the highest of all ethnic groups, is
significantly
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higher than Puerto Rico's 16.7 percent. According to Puerto Rico's
Department of Education, the local rate is believed to be lower, because
it
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does not reflect the high mobility of families between the island and the
continental U.S.
"The job market in the continental U.S. offers good job prospects for
graduates of high school or trade schools, but not in Puerto Rico," says
Augusto Amato, an economist at Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the island's
largest bank. "It's hard enough to get a job with a bachelor's degree.
That
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is reason enough to finish high school and enroll in college."
Dog Eat Dog out There
It's survival of the fittest, considering Puerto Rico's 13 percent
unemployment rate is the highest nationwide and almost triple that of the
U.S. mainland. And in spite of a strong economy during recent years, the
prospects of job creation are dim, because economic growth rates have been
inadequate for a developing economy in which the income levels of 59
percent
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of the population fall within the U.S. federal government's poverty
guidelines.
According to a major 1994 College Board report on college education in
Puerto Rico, the limited job opportunities awaiting high-school graduates
and the availability of the Pell grant incline many to the college option,
though not all complete their degrees. With starting annual salaries that
hover around $25,000, engineering has become a highly coveted career,
especially since demand for these professionals is also strong.
A recent Banco Popular survey of 140 major Puerto Rico-based employers
shows
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a need for technical professionals here, particularly computer,
mechanical,
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and electrical engineers.
Financial Pressures
Puerto Rico's high cost of living, buoyed by high real estate prices and
dependence on exports, prompts many workers to seek better job
opportunities. Most of Politécnica's students already hold full-time jobs
and are turning to engineering as a way to move up the ranks, says
Gilberto
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Vélez, dean of engineering. That's the case with the more than 100 workers
from the government-owned Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority that attend
Politécnica. The average annual salary of the agency's 558 engineers is
$50,000, a good income in light of Puerto Rico's $30,860 family average.
"The title of engineer enjoys prestige, and there is demand for them,"
says
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Vélez. "A career in engineering also offers the flexibility of being your
own boss."
There also has been a local shift to pursue degrees in science and
engineering, a reverse of the trend in the continental United States,
where
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more students are majoring in humanities and social and behavioral
sciences.
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No Slacking Up
The Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of
Engineering Societies reports that the number of B.Sc. degrees awarded in
engineering has decreased by 17.2 percent in the past 10 years.
Not in Puerto Rico. While 8 percent of all SAT test-takers in the U.S.
mentioned engineering as the intended college major in 1999, Puerto Rico's
figure is higher, at 12 percent. A comparable figure is not available for
Hispanic Americans, but a report put out by the University of California's
Higher Education Research Institute says that Hispanics accounted for only
5.1 percent of freshmen intending to major in engineering in 1996.
"Hispanic engineering enrollment is growing, but very slowly and not on
parity," says Al Staropoli, national director for math and science for
Aspira, a nonprofit organization devoted to the education and leadership
development of Latino youth.
Rock-Bottom Costs
Part of the reason why a larger share of Puerto Ricans opt for college is
the relatively low cost of higher education there, local observers say.
UPR is the number one choice for most high-school graduates, not only
because of its world-class engineering program but for its rock-bottom
tuition. With a college credit at $30, a one-year, 36-credit program costs
about $1,345 in tuition and fees. That pales in comparison with the $3,489
annual average for in-state students at U.S. public universities. Even
Politécnica's estimated $4,500 in annual tuition and fees is less than
one-third of the $17,197 average for private universities in the U.S.
The lower cost does not come at the expense of quality, observers say.
Seventh largest in the U.S., UPR's engineering school is considered to be
among the nation's 10 best. Not only do three-fourths of its professors
have
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Ph.D.s, but the 170-credit program takes five years to complete, one more
than at most stateside universities. A well-rounded education that
includes
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courses in humanities and social sciences and exposes students to a basic
knowledge of other engineering fields is often cited as one of the
school's
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salient points, says Nieves.
Corporate Support
Reinforcing the curriculum are cooperative education agreements with
several
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companies and government agencies.
"UPR's engineering school is without a doubt one of the best schools
nationwide," says Nelly González, Andersen Consulting's diversity director
for North America. "It has an intense and rigorous curriculum that focuses
both on the technical and people skills."
González says she came down reluctantly three years ago after meeting
Nieves
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at a stateside conference. She was immediately surprised with the quantity
and quality of graduating students and their willingness to relocate
stateside. Since then, the world's largest management and technology
consulting firm has hired more than 80 UPR graduates, the majority of whom
are engineers.
"The experience has been excellent," says González.
UPR draws the best of the best of the island's high-school graduates, many
of whom have taken advanced placement courses. For the current academic
year, only half of the 1,774 applicants were admitted. To gain admission
into the popular electric and computer engineering programs, for instance,
students must have a GPA of at least 3.5 and high admission test scores,
says Jorge Rivera Santos, acting dean of the University of Puerto Rico's
School of Engineering.
Prep Courses Required
It's easier to get a foothold in Politécnica's School of Engineering,
which
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this academic year admitted 1,200 of the 1,600 applicants. Still, weaker
academic performers must take up to 24 credits of remedial courses before
they dip into the engineering programs, which, like UPR's, are accredited
by
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the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Stateside
recruiters have taken notice and are increasingly scouting local talent at
both UPR and Politécnica.
"It's true most of these companies come thinking of their minority quota,
but in the end they continue coming for the quality of our students," says
UPR's Nieves.
Ken Acosta, cooperative education recruitment coordinator of the National
Security Agency, agrees.
"Puerto Rico has the best caliber students when it comes to engineering,"
says Acosta. "They have good GPAs in addition to being responsible, hard
workers."
The NSA, the U.S. Defense Department unit that handles signal
intelligence,
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recruits between 10 and 20 local students annually. Given the quality of
candidates, they easily could exceed those figures, but the agency aims at
diversified recruiting. Acosta says the agency gets good Hispanic
candidates
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from the mainland as well but concedes the pool is not as large as Puerto
Rico's.
There is also a fierce competition for the few Hispanic engineers
graduating
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from stateside universities, so Puerto Rico is an excellent alternative,
added Andersen's González.
Drain, or Growth Opportunity?
Local politicians and economists decry the brain drain, especially of
students trained at the publicly funded UPR, which sees more than half of
its graduates leave for stateside jobs. But the truth is that the local
market cannot absorb them all.
"The local job market is tight, and they are offered very competitive
salaries," says Rivera Santos.
Most of the corporate recruiters offer pay in the $40,000-plus range. The
best a starting engineer can do locally is the $38,000 paid by major
multinational companies located in Puerto Rico, but these offers are the
exception rather than the rule, says Nieves.
"Some of our graduates that take up stateside jobs beat right away the
$40,000 annual salary average for our Ph.D. professors," quips Rivera
Santos.
There is an added bonus in recruiting locally. Puerto Rico is also a
bounty
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of hard-to-find female engineers, who made up only 19.4 percent of all
first-year, U.S. engineering enrollments in 1994, according to Engineering
Workforce Commission reports. Female engineering students account for 35
percent of UPR's student body, a figure that also puzzles UPR
administrators.
"In Puerto Rico, we have access not only to talented Hispanics and
technology but also to female engineers," says González. "We feel we have
found a pot of gold."
© Copyright 2001 by Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology
We Hispanic's are the largest minority group in the United States now, and
we are still growing. Soon we will be running everthing. People that put
down others is because they are jelous, don't have a job and needs to pick
on others to gratify themselves.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the
white
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man. >>
From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon
Eduardo
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Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the
Spanish
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colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal
between
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1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking
of
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women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of
Santo
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Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the
Indian,
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helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and
enlarge
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the
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boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on
Tenochtitlan,
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Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish
soldiers
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had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the
arid
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region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly
completed
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until
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the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from
1527
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to
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1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of
Cortes.
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With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado",
Montejo
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sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification
of
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Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his
father
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had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes sent
Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose
Spanish
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control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into
Chiapas,
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where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527,
when
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Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman,
a
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corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high
places.
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Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a
reputation
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for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y
cuchillo",
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the
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man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts one
stood
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out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to
sweep
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the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic
Spaniards
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pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region
baptized
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Nueva Galicia.
page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether
with
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husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when
they
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were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian
to
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death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns.
When
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they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with bloodhounds.
Cortes
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and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into
slavery.
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Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly
that
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the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos
drove
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their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of
their
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goods.
page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before
him
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some
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19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose
notorious
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trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In
Mihoacan, a
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Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town
plaza,
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laid
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quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the
Indians
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were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in
Mihoacan
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had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On
the
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next
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day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged
himself
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to
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escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of
the
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Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2
centuries.
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Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught,
whipped.
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page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the society
of New
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Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of
mining,
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shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million
people who
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dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million survived
over a
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century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as
dissenting
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sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian
life is
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still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the
decline
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come
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to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating
repercussions..
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Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a
ruthless
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Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death
of
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millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich,
if
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not
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with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars
who
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defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and
monasteries,
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they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission
lands,
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where
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European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic
shrines,
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usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of
Indian
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servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy
and
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their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man by
reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of
townsfolk
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who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which
exposed
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them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also,
upset the
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ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for
their
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buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren
of
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trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected
slopes;
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when
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the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and
gullies.
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Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding
to
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its
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woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or
corn
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and
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squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food
supply.
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Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by
cattle.
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The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise,
only
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students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident,
Spaniards
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altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic
experience
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because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise. The
Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that
not a
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vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none
of
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the
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major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only
groups
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of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived.
Still,
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even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of the
Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting even
the
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native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa
farmers.
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Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the
arrival of
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the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and drank
alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for
example, a
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people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a
major
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vice
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and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians
were
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also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth
for
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zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the 16th
century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their
bosoms
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naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long their
traditional blouse.
page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and
so
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they
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fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.
page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of
them
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were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo,
and
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the
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Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times
placing
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him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco
region of
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the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them
to
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the
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sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000
Indian
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slaves in 1542....
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Jose Millan Astray
2004-05-24 01:34:20 UTC
Permalink
Hegemon,
Thanks for the career advice, Bro?

V/r
Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
Post by unknown
How can YOU enforce "high" standards when you are a mediocre vendepatria?
"high" standards and vendepatria are a classic oxymoron!
You receive a degree from a substandard program in a substandard
university which makes you a substandard teacher.
Hose?
Post by Jose Millan Astray
Excellent post Latinguyny!
I am doing my part by steering middle school students to the sciences and
math and by enforcing high academic standards.
V/r
Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
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How do you know if Hispanic's aren't part of the teams that help develop
new
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technologies? Maybe Hispanics didn't invent the television or your
vibrator, but you don't jack shit about us. People like you when you
have
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no job, miserable and feel inferior you start to put down others. The
fact
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is and I won't respond to anymore to this thread is that Hispanics, (and
you
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deliberately misspell the word Hispanic as Hispanicks to belittle us, or
is
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it that you are just plan stupid) are the largest minority group in the
United States now and we are not going away, soon we will be running
everything, deciding who the next president of the US will be and might I
add a lot more. By the year 2040 Hispanic's won't be considered a
minority.
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So if you don't like Hispanic's (and I would assume a lot of other people)
I
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would suggest that you pack your belongings and move into a hole
somewhere.
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You don't think that we don't contribute to technologies, read on.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico -- This island has become a gold mine for corporate
recruiters looking for talented Hispanic engineering graduates.
The reason? The University of Puerto Rico's School of Engineering in
Mayaguez boasts the largest number of Hispanic engineering students in the
United States.
You read it right. The public university located on the western coast of
the
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3,500-square-mile island hosts 4,593 engineering students. Another local
university, the privately-owned Universidad Politécnica, places second,
with
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3,776. They each have more than double the number of Hispanic engineering
students as are enrolled at Texas A&M University, the main source of
Hispanic engineers in the continental United States.
Puerto Rico's large pool of engineering students is not going unnoticed by
U.S. employers. In October, UPR's job fair had a record-setting number of
companies and federal agencies recruiting engineers: 74. The list includes
the likes of Motorola, Raytheon Systems, IBM, the U.S. Department of
Energy,
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and the U.S. Geological Survey.
"Some recruiters say we are the best kept secret in the engineering
industry," says Nancy Nieves, placement department director at UPR's
Mayaguez campus. "Recruiters are coming down by word of mouth."
Majority Status Helps
The 3.8 million Puerto Ricans are not a minority in their homeland, but
considering the island's small size, bleak economic indicators, and a
smaller pool of potential college students, the enrollment figures are
eye-popping.
A closer look at Puerto Rico reveals unique factors that boost sign-ups at
engineering schools.
The main one: a college degree has become the ticket out of economic
stagnation. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing emphasis on
educational attainment to secure better earnings and job opportunities.
Strong demand from the local market and the continental U.S. for
engineers,
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coupled with the proliferation of colleges, low tuition costs, and
generous
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student aid, have eased this task.
"If a person doesn't study in Puerto Rico, it's for lack of interest,"
says
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Antonio Magriñá Rodríguez, research director for The College Board office
in
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Puerto Rico. "When it comes to college studies, the offer is greater than
the demand. There is a strong effort to promote education among our young
population."
Plenty of Schools
By one measure, there are 45 private and public colleges in Puerto Rico
offering at least a bachelor's degree. Only UPR and Politécnica have
schools
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of engineering, though other institutions offer bachelor's degrees in one
or
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two engineering fields.
Academic observers caution against drawing comparisons between Puerto
Rico-based Hispanics and stateside Latinos, mainly because the first group
does not face language and racial barriers. But statistics do help explain
why there is a larger pool of engineering students on the Caribbean
island.
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Take educational attainment rates. Hispanic Americans' 25 percent
high-school dropout rate, the highest of all ethnic groups, is
significantly
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higher than Puerto Rico's 16.7 percent. According to Puerto Rico's
Department of Education, the local rate is believed to be lower, because
it
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does not reflect the high mobility of families between the island and the
continental U.S.
"The job market in the continental U.S. offers good job prospects for
graduates of high school or trade schools, but not in Puerto Rico," says
Augusto Amato, an economist at Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the island's
largest bank. "It's hard enough to get a job with a bachelor's degree.
That
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is reason enough to finish high school and enroll in college."
Dog Eat Dog out There
It's survival of the fittest, considering Puerto Rico's 13 percent
unemployment rate is the highest nationwide and almost triple that of the
U.S. mainland. And in spite of a strong economy during recent years, the
prospects of job creation are dim, because economic growth rates have been
inadequate for a developing economy in which the income levels of 59
percent
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of the population fall within the U.S. federal government's poverty
guidelines.
According to a major 1994 College Board report on college education in
Puerto Rico, the limited job opportunities awaiting high-school graduates
and the availability of the Pell grant incline many to the college option,
though not all complete their degrees. With starting annual salaries that
hover around $25,000, engineering has become a highly coveted career,
especially since demand for these professionals is also strong.
A recent Banco Popular survey of 140 major Puerto Rico-based employers
shows
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a need for technical professionals here, particularly computer,
mechanical,
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and electrical engineers.
Financial Pressures
Puerto Rico's high cost of living, buoyed by high real estate prices and
dependence on exports, prompts many workers to seek better job
opportunities. Most of Politécnica's students already hold full-time jobs
and are turning to engineering as a way to move up the ranks, says
Gilberto
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Vélez, dean of engineering. That's the case with the more than 100 workers
from the government-owned Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority that attend
Politécnica. The average annual salary of the agency's 558 engineers is
$50,000, a good income in light of Puerto Rico's $30,860 family average.
"The title of engineer enjoys prestige, and there is demand for them,"
says
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Vélez. "A career in engineering also offers the flexibility of being your
own boss."
There also has been a local shift to pursue degrees in science and
engineering, a reverse of the trend in the continental United States,
where
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more students are majoring in humanities and social and behavioral
sciences.
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No Slacking Up
The Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of
Engineering Societies reports that the number of B.Sc. degrees awarded in
engineering has decreased by 17.2 percent in the past 10 years.
Not in Puerto Rico. While 8 percent of all SAT test-takers in the U.S.
mentioned engineering as the intended college major in 1999, Puerto Rico's
figure is higher, at 12 percent. A comparable figure is not available for
Hispanic Americans, but a report put out by the University of California's
Higher Education Research Institute says that Hispanics accounted for only
5.1 percent of freshmen intending to major in engineering in 1996.
"Hispanic engineering enrollment is growing, but very slowly and not on
parity," says Al Staropoli, national director for math and science for
Aspira, a nonprofit organization devoted to the education and leadership
development of Latino youth.
Rock-Bottom Costs
Part of the reason why a larger share of Puerto Ricans opt for college is
the relatively low cost of higher education there, local observers say.
UPR is the number one choice for most high-school graduates, not only
because of its world-class engineering program but for its rock-bottom
tuition. With a college credit at $30, a one-year, 36-credit program costs
about $1,345 in tuition and fees. That pales in comparison with the $3,489
annual average for in-state students at U.S. public universities. Even
Politécnica's estimated $4,500 in annual tuition and fees is less than
one-third of the $17,197 average for private universities in the U.S.
The lower cost does not come at the expense of quality, observers say.
Seventh largest in the U.S., UPR's engineering school is considered to be
among the nation's 10 best. Not only do three-fourths of its professors
have
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Ph.D.s, but the 170-credit program takes five years to complete, one more
than at most stateside universities. A well-rounded education that
includes
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courses in humanities and social sciences and exposes students to a basic
knowledge of other engineering fields is often cited as one of the
school's
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salient points, says Nieves.
Corporate Support
Reinforcing the curriculum are cooperative education agreements with
several
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companies and government agencies.
"UPR's engineering school is without a doubt one of the best schools
nationwide," says Nelly González, Andersen Consulting's diversity director
for North America. "It has an intense and rigorous curriculum that focuses
both on the technical and people skills."
González says she came down reluctantly three years ago after meeting
Nieves
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at a stateside conference. She was immediately surprised with the quantity
and quality of graduating students and their willingness to relocate
stateside. Since then, the world's largest management and technology
consulting firm has hired more than 80 UPR graduates, the majority of whom
are engineers.
"The experience has been excellent," says González.
UPR draws the best of the best of the island's high-school graduates, many
of whom have taken advanced placement courses. For the current academic
year, only half of the 1,774 applicants were admitted. To gain admission
into the popular electric and computer engineering programs, for instance,
students must have a GPA of at least 3.5 and high admission test scores,
says Jorge Rivera Santos, acting dean of the University of Puerto Rico's
School of Engineering.
Prep Courses Required
It's easier to get a foothold in Politécnica's School of Engineering,
which
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this academic year admitted 1,200 of the 1,600 applicants. Still, weaker
academic performers must take up to 24 credits of remedial courses before
they dip into the engineering programs, which, like UPR's, are accredited
by
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the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Stateside
recruiters have taken notice and are increasingly scouting local talent at
both UPR and Politécnica.
"It's true most of these companies come thinking of their minority quota,
but in the end they continue coming for the quality of our students," says
UPR's Nieves.
Ken Acosta, cooperative education recruitment coordinator of the National
Security Agency, agrees.
"Puerto Rico has the best caliber students when it comes to
engineering,"
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Post by Jose Millan Astray
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says Acosta. "They have good GPAs in addition to being responsible, hard
workers."
The NSA, the U.S. Defense Department unit that handles signal
intelligence,
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recruits between 10 and 20 local students annually. Given the quality of
candidates, they easily could exceed those figures, but the agency aims at
diversified recruiting. Acosta says the agency gets good Hispanic
candidates
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from the mainland as well but concedes the pool is not as large as Puerto
Rico's.
There is also a fierce competition for the few Hispanic engineers
graduating
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from stateside universities, so Puerto Rico is an excellent alternative,
added Andersen's González.
Drain, or Growth Opportunity?
Local politicians and economists decry the brain drain, especially of
students trained at the publicly funded UPR, which sees more than half of
its graduates leave for stateside jobs. But the truth is that the local
market cannot absorb them all.
"The local job market is tight, and they are offered very competitive
salaries," says Rivera Santos.
Most of the corporate recruiters offer pay in the $40,000-plus range. The
best a starting engineer can do locally is the $38,000 paid by major
multinational companies located in Puerto Rico, but these offers are the
exception rather than the rule, says Nieves.
"Some of our graduates that take up stateside jobs beat right away the
$40,000 annual salary average for our Ph.D. professors," quips Rivera
Santos.
There is an added bonus in recruiting locally. Puerto Rico is also a
bounty
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of hard-to-find female engineers, who made up only 19.4 percent of all
first-year, U.S. engineering enrollments in 1994, according to Engineering
Workforce Commission reports. Female engineering students account for 35
percent of UPR's student body, a figure that also puzzles UPR
administrators.
"In Puerto Rico, we have access not only to talented Hispanics and
technology but also to female engineers," says González. "We feel we have
found a pot of gold."
© Copyright 2001 by Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology
We Hispanic's are the largest minority group in the United States now, and
we are still growing. Soon we will be running everthing. People that put
down others is because they are jelous, don't have a job and needs to pick
on others to gratify themselves.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the
white
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man. >>
From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon
Eduardo
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Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the
Spanish
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colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal
between
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1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking
of
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women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of
Santo
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Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the
Indian,
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helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and
enlarge
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the
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boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on
Tenochtitlan,
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Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish
soldiers
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had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the
arid
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region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly
completed
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until
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the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from
1527
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to
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1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of
Cortes.
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With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado",
Montejo
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sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification
of
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Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his
father
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had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes sent
Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose
Spanish
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control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into
Chiapas,
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where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527,
when
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Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman,
a
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corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high
places.
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Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a
reputation
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for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y
cuchillo",
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the
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man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts one
stood
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out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to
sweep
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the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic
Spaniards
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pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region
baptized
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Nueva Galicia.
page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether
with
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husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when
they
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were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian
to
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death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns.
When
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they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with
bloodhounds.
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Cortes
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and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into
slavery.
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Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly
that
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the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos
drove
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their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of
their
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goods.
page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before
him
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some
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19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose
notorious
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trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In
Mihoacan, a
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Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town
plaza,
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laid
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quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the
Indians
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were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in
Mihoacan
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had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On
the
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next
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day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged
himself
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to
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escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of
the
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Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2
centuries.
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Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught,
whipped.
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page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the society
of New
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Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of
mining,
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shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million
people who
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dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million survived
over a
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century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as
dissenting
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sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian
life is
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still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the
decline
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come
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to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating
repercussions..
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Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a
ruthless
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Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death
of
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millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich,
if
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not
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with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars
who
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defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and
monasteries,
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they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission
lands,
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where
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European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic
shrines,
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usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of
Indian
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servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy
and
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their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man by
reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of
townsfolk
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who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which
exposed
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them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also,
upset the
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ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for
their
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buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren
of
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trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected
slopes;
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when
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the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and
gullies.
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Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding
to
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its
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woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or
corn
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and
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squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food
supply.
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Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by
cattle.
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The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise,
only
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students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident,
Spaniards
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altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic
experience
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because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise. The
Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that
not a
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vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none
of
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the
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major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only
groups
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of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived.
Still,
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even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of the
Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting even
the
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native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa
farmers.
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Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the
arrival of
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the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and drank
alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for
example, a
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people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a
major
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vice
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and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians
were
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also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth
for
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zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the 16th
century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their
bosoms
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naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long their
traditional blouse.
page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and
so
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they
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fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.
page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of
them
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were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo,
and
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the
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Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times
placing
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him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco
region of
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the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them
to
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the
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sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000
Indian
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slaves in 1542....
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
unknown
2004-05-24 03:16:42 UTC
Permalink
I am always concerned about mediocre "professionals" hurting our kids.
Why don't you teach white kids?
Post by Jose Millan Astray
Hegemon,
Thanks for the career advice, Bro?
V/r
Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
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How can YOU enforce "high" standards when you are a mediocre vendepatria?
"high" standards and vendepatria are a classic oxymoron!
You receive a degree from a substandard program in a substandard
university which makes you a substandard teacher.
Hose?
Post by Jose Millan Astray
Excellent post Latinguyny!
I am doing my part by steering middle school students to the sciences
and
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math and by enforcing high academic standards.
V/r
Jose Millan Astray
"Vista, Suerte y al Toro"
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How do you know if Hispanic's aren't part of the teams that help develop
new
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technologies? Maybe Hispanics didn't invent the television or your
vibrator, but you don't jack shit about us. People like you when you
have
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no job, miserable and feel inferior you start to put down others. The
fact
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is and I won't respond to anymore to this thread is that Hispanics, (and
you
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deliberately misspell the word Hispanic as Hispanicks to belittle us, or
is
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it that you are just plan stupid) are the largest minority group in the
United States now and we are not going away, soon we will be running
everything, deciding who the next president of the US will be and might
I
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add a lot more. By the year 2040 Hispanic's won't be considered a
minority.
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So if you don't like Hispanic's (and I would assume a lot of other
people)
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I
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would suggest that you pack your belongings and move into a hole
somewhere.
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You don't think that we don't contribute to technologies, read on.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico -- This island has become a gold mine for
corporate
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recruiters looking for talented Hispanic engineering graduates.
The reason? The University of Puerto Rico's School of Engineering in
Mayaguez boasts the largest number of Hispanic engineering students in
the
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United States.
You read it right. The public university located on the western coast of
the
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3,500-square-mile island hosts 4,593 engineering students. Another local
university, the privately-owned Universidad Politécnica, places second,
with
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3,776. They each have more than double the number of Hispanic
engineering
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students as are enrolled at Texas A&M University, the main source of
Hispanic engineers in the continental United States.
Puerto Rico's large pool of engineering students is not going unnoticed
by
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U.S. employers. In October, UPR's job fair had a record-setting number
of
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companies and federal agencies recruiting engineers: 74. The list
includes
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the likes of Motorola, Raytheon Systems, IBM, the U.S. Department of
Energy,
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and the U.S. Geological Survey.
"Some recruiters say we are the best kept secret in the engineering
industry," says Nancy Nieves, placement department director at UPR's
Mayaguez campus. "Recruiters are coming down by word of mouth."
Majority Status Helps
The 3.8 million Puerto Ricans are not a minority in their homeland, but
considering the island's small size, bleak economic indicators, and a
smaller pool of potential college students, the enrollment figures are
eye-popping.
A closer look at Puerto Rico reveals unique factors that boost sign-ups
at
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engineering schools.
The main one: a college degree has become the ticket out of economic
stagnation. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing emphasis on
educational attainment to secure better earnings and job opportunities.
Strong demand from the local market and the continental U.S. for
engineers,
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coupled with the proliferation of colleges, low tuition costs, and
generous
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student aid, have eased this task.
"If a person doesn't study in Puerto Rico, it's for lack of interest,"
says
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Antonio Magriñá Rodríguez, research director for The College Board
office
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in
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Puerto Rico. "When it comes to college studies, the offer is greater
than
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the demand. There is a strong effort to promote education among our
young
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population."
Plenty of Schools
By one measure, there are 45 private and public colleges in Puerto Rico
offering at least a bachelor's degree. Only UPR and Politécnica have
schools
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of engineering, though other institutions offer bachelor's degrees in
one
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or
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two engineering fields.
Academic observers caution against drawing comparisons between Puerto
Rico-based Hispanics and stateside Latinos, mainly because the first
group
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does not face language and racial barriers. But statistics do help
explain
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why there is a larger pool of engineering students on the Caribbean
island.
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Take educational attainment rates. Hispanic Americans' 25 percent
high-school dropout rate, the highest of all ethnic groups, is
significantly
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higher than Puerto Rico's 16.7 percent. According to Puerto Rico's
Department of Education, the local rate is believed to be lower, because
it
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does not reflect the high mobility of families between the island and
the
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continental U.S.
"The job market in the continental U.S. offers good job prospects for
graduates of high school or trade schools, but not in Puerto Rico," says
Augusto Amato, an economist at Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the
island's
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largest bank. "It's hard enough to get a job with a bachelor's degree.
That
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is reason enough to finish high school and enroll in college."
Dog Eat Dog out There
It's survival of the fittest, considering Puerto Rico's 13 percent
unemployment rate is the highest nationwide and almost triple that of
the
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U.S. mainland. And in spite of a strong economy during recent years, the
prospects of job creation are dim, because economic growth rates have
been
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inadequate for a developing economy in which the income levels of 59
percent
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of the population fall within the U.S. federal government's poverty
guidelines.
According to a major 1994 College Board report on college education in
Puerto Rico, the limited job opportunities awaiting high-school
graduates
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and the availability of the Pell grant incline many to the college
option,
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though not all complete their degrees. With starting annual salaries
that
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hover around $25,000, engineering has become a highly coveted career,
especially since demand for these professionals is also strong.
A recent Banco Popular survey of 140 major Puerto Rico-based employers
shows
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a need for technical professionals here, particularly computer,
mechanical,
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and electrical engineers.
Financial Pressures
Puerto Rico's high cost of living, buoyed by high real estate prices and
dependence on exports, prompts many workers to seek better job
opportunities. Most of Politécnica's students already hold full-time
jobs
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and are turning to engineering as a way to move up the ranks, says
Gilberto
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Vélez, dean of engineering. That's the case with the more than 100
workers
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from the government-owned Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority that
attend
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Politécnica. The average annual salary of the agency's 558 engineers is
$50,000, a good income in light of Puerto Rico's $30,860 family average.
"The title of engineer enjoys prestige, and there is demand for them,"
says
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Vélez. "A career in engineering also offers the flexibility of being
your
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own boss."
There also has been a local shift to pursue degrees in science and
engineering, a reverse of the trend in the continental United States,
where
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more students are majoring in humanities and social and behavioral
sciences.
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No Slacking Up
The Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of
Engineering Societies reports that the number of B.Sc. degrees awarded
in
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engineering has decreased by 17.2 percent in the past 10 years.
Not in Puerto Rico. While 8 percent of all SAT test-takers in the U.S.
mentioned engineering as the intended college major in 1999, Puerto
Rico's
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figure is higher, at 12 percent. A comparable figure is not available
for
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Hispanic Americans, but a report put out by the University of
California's
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Higher Education Research Institute says that Hispanics accounted for
only
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5.1 percent of freshmen intending to major in engineering in 1996.
"Hispanic engineering enrollment is growing, but very slowly and not on
parity," says Al Staropoli, national director for math and science for
Aspira, a nonprofit organization devoted to the education and leadership
development of Latino youth.
Rock-Bottom Costs
Part of the reason why a larger share of Puerto Ricans opt for college
is
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the relatively low cost of higher education there, local observers say.
UPR is the number one choice for most high-school graduates, not only
because of its world-class engineering program but for its rock-bottom
tuition. With a college credit at $30, a one-year, 36-credit program
costs
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about $1,345 in tuition and fees. That pales in comparison with the
$3,489
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annual average for in-state students at U.S. public universities. Even
Politécnica's estimated $4,500 in annual tuition and fees is less than
one-third of the $17,197 average for private universities in the U.S.
The lower cost does not come at the expense of quality, observers say.
Seventh largest in the U.S., UPR's engineering school is considered to
be
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among the nation's 10 best. Not only do three-fourths of its professors
have
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Ph.D.s, but the 170-credit program takes five years to complete, one
more
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than at most stateside universities. A well-rounded education that
includes
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courses in humanities and social sciences and exposes students to a
basic
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knowledge of other engineering fields is often cited as one of the
school's
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salient points, says Nieves.
Corporate Support
Reinforcing the curriculum are cooperative education agreements with
several
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companies and government agencies.
"UPR's engineering school is without a doubt one of the best schools
nationwide," says Nelly González, Andersen Consulting's diversity
director
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for North America. "It has an intense and rigorous curriculum that
focuses
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both on the technical and people skills."
González says she came down reluctantly three years ago after meeting
Nieves
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at a stateside conference. She was immediately surprised with the
quantity
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and quality of graduating students and their willingness to relocate
stateside. Since then, the world's largest management and technology
consulting firm has hired more than 80 UPR graduates, the majority of
whom
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are engineers.
"The experience has been excellent," says González.
UPR draws the best of the best of the island's high-school graduates,
many
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of whom have taken advanced placement courses. For the current academic
year, only half of the 1,774 applicants were admitted. To gain admission
into the popular electric and computer engineering programs, for
instance,
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students must have a GPA of at least 3.5 and high admission test scores,
says Jorge Rivera Santos, acting dean of the University of Puerto Rico's
School of Engineering.
Prep Courses Required
It's easier to get a foothold in Politécnica's School of Engineering,
which
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this academic year admitted 1,200 of the 1,600 applicants. Still, weaker
academic performers must take up to 24 credits of remedial courses
before
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they dip into the engineering programs, which, like UPR's, are
accredited
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by
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the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Stateside
recruiters have taken notice and are increasingly scouting local talent
at
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both UPR and Politécnica.
"It's true most of these companies come thinking of their minority
quota,
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but in the end they continue coming for the quality of our students,"
says
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UPR's Nieves.
Ken Acosta, cooperative education recruitment coordinator of the
National
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Security Agency, agrees.
"Puerto Rico has the best caliber students when it comes to
engineering,"
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says Acosta. "They have good GPAs in addition to being responsible, hard
workers."
The NSA, the U.S. Defense Department unit that handles signal
intelligence,
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recruits between 10 and 20 local students annually. Given the quality of
candidates, they easily could exceed those figures, but the agency aims
at
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diversified recruiting. Acosta says the agency gets good Hispanic
candidates
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from the mainland as well but concedes the pool is not as large as
Puerto
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Rico's.
There is also a fierce competition for the few Hispanic engineers
graduating
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from stateside universities, so Puerto Rico is an excellent alternative,
added Andersen's González.
Drain, or Growth Opportunity?
Local politicians and economists decry the brain drain, especially of
students trained at the publicly funded UPR, which sees more than half
of
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its graduates leave for stateside jobs. But the truth is that the local
market cannot absorb them all.
"The local job market is tight, and they are offered very competitive
salaries," says Rivera Santos.
Most of the corporate recruiters offer pay in the $40,000-plus range.
The
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best a starting engineer can do locally is the $38,000 paid by major
multinational companies located in Puerto Rico, but these offers are the
exception rather than the rule, says Nieves.
"Some of our graduates that take up stateside jobs beat right away the
$40,000 annual salary average for our Ph.D. professors," quips Rivera
Santos.
There is an added bonus in recruiting locally. Puerto Rico is also a
bounty
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of hard-to-find female engineers, who made up only 19.4 percent of all
first-year, U.S. engineering enrollments in 1994, according to
Engineering
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Workforce Commission reports. Female engineering students account for 35
percent of UPR's student body, a figure that also puzzles UPR
administrators.
"In Puerto Rico, we have access not only to talented Hispanics and
technology but also to female engineers," says González. "We feel we
have
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found a pot of gold."
© Copyright 2001 by Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology
We Hispanic's are the largest minority group in the United States now,
and
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we are still growing. Soon we will be running everthing. People that
put
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down others is because they are jelous, don't have a job and needs to
pick
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on others to gratify themselves.
Post by Leusogafofomaaitulagi Fonoimoana
<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the
white
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man. >>
From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon
Eduardo
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Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the
Spanish
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colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal
between
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1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking
of
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women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives
of
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Santo
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Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the
Indian,
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helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and
enlarge
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the
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boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on
Tenochtitlan,
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Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish
soldiers
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had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the
arid
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region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly
completed
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until
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the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from
1527
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to
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1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of
Cortes.
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With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado",
Montejo
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sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification
of
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Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his
father
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had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes
sent
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Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose
Spanish
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control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into
Chiapas,
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where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527,
when
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Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman,
a
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corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high
places.
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Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a
reputation
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for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y
cuchillo",
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the
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man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts
one
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stood
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out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to
sweep
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the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic
Spaniards
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pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region
baptized
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Nueva Galicia.
page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether
with
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husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when
they
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were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian
to
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death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns.
When
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they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with
bloodhounds.
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Cortes
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and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into
slavery.
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Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so
badly
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that
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the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos
drove
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their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of
their
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goods.
page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before
him
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some
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19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose
notorious
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trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In
Mihoacan, a
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Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town
plaza,
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laid
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quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the
Indians
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were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in
Mihoacan
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had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On
the
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next
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day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged
himself
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to
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escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of
the
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Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2
centuries.
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Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught,
whipped.
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page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the
society
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of New
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Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of
mining,
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shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million
people who
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dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million
survived
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over a
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century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as
dissenting
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sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian
life is
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still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the
decline
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come
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to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating
repercussions..
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Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a
ruthless
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Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death
of
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millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich,
if
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not
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with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars
who
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defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and
monasteries,
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they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission
lands,
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where
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European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic
shrines,
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usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of
Indian
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servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy
and
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their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man
by
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reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of
townsfolk
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who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which
exposed
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them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also,
upset the
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ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for
their
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buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren
of
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trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected
slopes;
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when
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the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and
gullies.
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Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding
to
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its
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woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or
corn
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and
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squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food
supply.
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Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by
cattle.
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The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise,
only
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students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident,
Spaniards
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altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic
experience
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because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise.
The
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Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that
not a
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vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none
of
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the
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major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only
groups
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of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived.
Still,
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even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of
the
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Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting
even
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the
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native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa
farmers.
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Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the
arrival of
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the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and
drank
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alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for
example, a
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people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a
major
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vice
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and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians
were
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also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth
for
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zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the
16th
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century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their
bosoms
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naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long
their
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traditional blouse.
page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and
so
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they
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fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.
page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most
of
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them
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were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo,
and
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the
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Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times
placing
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him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco
region of
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the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them
to
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the
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sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000
Indian
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slaves in 1542....
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Renata Iwanicka
2004-05-24 23:28:33 UTC
Permalink
I need to put in here my two cents. I came back from Puerto Rico just
couple of months ago. Yes it was vacation.
I agree with you. On the top of everything else the culture of the
people is completely different. I'm from Europe and this is the only
place that I've been to that made me feel right at home. American
society has a LOT to learn.
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How do you know if Hispanic's aren't part of the teams that help develop new
technologies? Maybe Hispanics didn't invent the television or your
vibrator, but you don't jack shit about us. People like you when you have
no job, miserable and feel inferior you start to put down others. The fact
is and I won't respond to anymore to this thread is that Hispanics, (and you
deliberately misspell the word Hispanic as Hispanicks to belittle us, or is
it that you are just plan stupid) are the largest minority group in the
United States now and we are not going away, soon we will be running
everything, deciding who the next president of the US will be and might I
add a lot more. By the year 2040 Hispanic's won't be considered a minority.
So if you don't like Hispanic's (and I would assume a lot of other people) I
would suggest that you pack your belongings and move into a hole somewhere.
You don't think that we don't contribute to technologies, read on.
SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico -- This island has become a gold mine for corporate
recruiters looking for talented Hispanic engineering graduates.
The reason? The University of Puerto Rico's School of Engineering in
Mayaguez boasts the largest number of Hispanic engineering students in the
United States.
You read it right. The public university located on the western coast of the
3,500-square-mile island hosts 4,593 engineering students. Another local
university, the privately-owned Universidad Politécnica, places second, with
3,776. They each have more than double the number of Hispanic engineering
students as are enrolled at Texas A&M University, the main source of
Hispanic engineers in the continental United States.
Puerto Rico's large pool of engineering students is not going unnoticed by
U.S. employers. In October, UPR's job fair had a record-setting number of
companies and federal agencies recruiting engineers: 74. The list includes
the likes of Motorola, Raytheon Systems, IBM, the U.S. Department of Energy,
and the U.S. Geological Survey.
"Some recruiters say we are the best kept secret in the engineering
industry," says Nancy Nieves, placement department director at UPR's
Mayaguez campus. "Recruiters are coming down by word of mouth."
Majority Status Helps
The 3.8 million Puerto Ricans are not a minority in their homeland, but
considering the island's small size, bleak economic indicators, and a
smaller pool of potential college students, the enrollment figures are
eye-popping.
A closer look at Puerto Rico reveals unique factors that boost sign-ups at
engineering schools.
The main one: a college degree has become the ticket out of economic
stagnation. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing emphasis on
educational attainment to secure better earnings and job opportunities.
Strong demand from the local market and the continental U.S. for engineers,
coupled with the proliferation of colleges, low tuition costs, and generous
student aid, have eased this task.
"If a person doesn't study in Puerto Rico, it's for lack of interest," says
Antonio Magriñá Rodríguez, research director for The College Board office in
Puerto Rico. "When it comes to college studies, the offer is greater than
the demand. There is a strong effort to promote education among our young
population."
Plenty of Schools
By one measure, there are 45 private and public colleges in Puerto Rico
offering at least a bachelor's degree. Only UPR and Politécnica have schools
of engineering, though other institutions offer bachelor's degrees in one or
two engineering fields.
Academic observers caution against drawing comparisons between Puerto
Rico-based Hispanics and stateside Latinos, mainly because the first group
does not face language and racial barriers. But statistics do help explain
why there is a larger pool of engineering students on the Caribbean island.
Take educational attainment rates. Hispanic Americans' 25 percent
high-school dropout rate, the highest of all ethnic groups, is significantly
higher than Puerto Rico's 16.7 percent. According to Puerto Rico's
Department of Education, the local rate is believed to be lower, because it
does not reflect the high mobility of families between the island and the
continental U.S.
"The job market in the continental U.S. offers good job prospects for
graduates of high school or trade schools, but not in Puerto Rico," says
Augusto Amato, an economist at Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the island's
largest bank. "It's hard enough to get a job with a bachelor's degree. That
is reason enough to finish high school and enroll in college."
Dog Eat Dog out There
It's survival of the fittest, considering Puerto Rico's 13 percent
unemployment rate is the highest nationwide and almost triple that of the
U.S. mainland. And in spite of a strong economy during recent years, the
prospects of job creation are dim, because economic growth rates have been
inadequate for a developing economy in which the income levels of 59 percent
of the population fall within the U.S. federal government's poverty
guidelines.
According to a major 1994 College Board report on college education in
Puerto Rico, the limited job opportunities awaiting high-school graduates
and the availability of the Pell grant incline many to the college option,
though not all complete their degrees. With starting annual salaries that
hover around $25,000, engineering has become a highly coveted career,
especially since demand for these professionals is also strong.
A recent Banco Popular survey of 140 major Puerto Rico-based employers shows
a need for technical professionals here, particularly computer, mechanical,
and electrical engineers.
Financial Pressures
Puerto Rico's high cost of living, buoyed by high real estate prices and
dependence on exports, prompts many workers to seek better job
opportunities. Most of Politécnica's students already hold full-time jobs
and are turning to engineering as a way to move up the ranks, says Gilberto
Vélez, dean of engineering. That's the case with the more than 100 workers
from the government-owned Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority that attend
Politécnica. The average annual salary of the agency's 558 engineers is
$50,000, a good income in light of Puerto Rico's $30,860 family average.
"The title of engineer enjoys prestige, and there is demand for them," says
Vélez. "A career in engineering also offers the flexibility of being your
own boss."
There also has been a local shift to pursue degrees in science and
engineering, a reverse of the trend in the continental United States, where
more students are majoring in humanities and social and behavioral sciences.
No Slacking Up
The Engineering Workforce Commission of the American Association of
Engineering Societies reports that the number of B.Sc. degrees awarded in
engineering has decreased by 17.2 percent in the past 10 years.
Not in Puerto Rico. While 8 percent of all SAT test-takers in the U.S.
mentioned engineering as the intended college major in 1999, Puerto Rico's
figure is higher, at 12 percent. A comparable figure is not available for
Hispanic Americans, but a report put out by the University of California's
Higher Education Research Institute says that Hispanics accounted for only
5.1 percent of freshmen intending to major in engineering in 1996.
"Hispanic engineering enrollment is growing, but very slowly and not on
parity," says Al Staropoli, national director for math and science for
Aspira, a nonprofit organization devoted to the education and leadership
development of Latino youth.
Rock-Bottom Costs
Part of the reason why a larger share of Puerto Ricans opt for college is
the relatively low cost of higher education there, local observers say.
UPR is the number one choice for most high-school graduates, not only
because of its world-class engineering program but for its rock-bottom
tuition. With a college credit at $30, a one-year, 36-credit program costs
about $1,345 in tuition and fees. That pales in comparison with the $3,489
annual average for in-state students at U.S. public universities. Even
Politécnica's estimated $4,500 in annual tuition and fees is less than
one-third of the $17,197 average for private universities in the U.S.
The lower cost does not come at the expense of quality, observers say.
Seventh largest in the U.S., UPR's engineering school is considered to be
among the nation's 10 best. Not only do three-fourths of its professors have
Ph.D.s, but the 170-credit program takes five years to complete, one more
than at most stateside universities. A well-rounded education that includes
courses in humanities and social sciences and exposes students to a basic
knowledge of other engineering fields is often cited as one of the school's
salient points, says Nieves.
Corporate Support
Reinforcing the curriculum are cooperative education agreements with several
companies and government agencies.
"UPR's engineering school is without a doubt one of the best schools
nationwide," says Nelly González, Andersen Consulting's diversity director
for North America. "It has an intense and rigorous curriculum that focuses
both on the technical and people skills."
González says she came down reluctantly three years ago after meeting Nieves
at a stateside conference. She was immediately surprised with the quantity
and quality of graduating students and their willingness to relocate
stateside. Since then, the world's largest management and technology
consulting firm has hired more than 80 UPR graduates, the majority of whom
are engineers.
"The experience has been excellent," says González.
UPR draws the best of the best of the island's high-school graduates, many
of whom have taken advanced placement courses. For the current academic
year, only half of the 1,774 applicants were admitted. To gain admission
into the popular electric and computer engineering programs, for instance,
students must have a GPA of at least 3.5 and high admission test scores,
says Jorge Rivera Santos, acting dean of the University of Puerto Rico's
School of Engineering.
Prep Courses Required
It's easier to get a foothold in Politécnica's School of Engineering, which
this academic year admitted 1,200 of the 1,600 applicants. Still, weaker
academic performers must take up to 24 credits of remedial courses before
they dip into the engineering programs, which, like UPR's, are accredited by
the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Stateside
recruiters have taken notice and are increasingly scouting local talent at
both UPR and Politécnica.
"It's true most of these companies come thinking of their minority quota,
but in the end they continue coming for the quality of our students," says
UPR's Nieves.
Ken Acosta, cooperative education recruitment coordinator of the National
Security Agency, agrees.
"Puerto Rico has the best caliber students when it comes to engineering,"
says Acosta. "They have good GPAs in addition to being responsible, hard
workers."
The NSA, the U.S. Defense Department unit that handles signal intelligence,
recruits between 10 and 20 local students annually. Given the quality of
candidates, they easily could exceed those figures, but the agency aims at
diversified recruiting. Acosta says the agency gets good Hispanic candidates
from the mainland as well but concedes the pool is not as large as Puerto
Rico's.
There is also a fierce competition for the few Hispanic engineers graduating
from stateside universities, so Puerto Rico is an excellent alternative,
added Andersen's González.
Drain, or Growth Opportunity?
Local politicians and economists decry the brain drain, especially of
students trained at the publicly funded UPR, which sees more than half of
its graduates leave for stateside jobs. But the truth is that the local
market cannot absorb them all.
"The local job market is tight, and they are offered very competitive
salaries," says Rivera Santos.
Most of the corporate recruiters offer pay in the $40,000-plus range. The
best a starting engineer can do locally is the $38,000 paid by major
multinational companies located in Puerto Rico, but these offers are the
exception rather than the rule, says Nieves.
"Some of our graduates that take up stateside jobs beat right away the
$40,000 annual salary average for our Ph.D. professors," quips Rivera
Santos.
There is an added bonus in recruiting locally. Puerto Rico is also a bounty
of hard-to-find female engineers, who made up only 19.4 percent of all
first-year, U.S. engineering enrollments in 1994, according to Engineering
Workforce Commission reports. Female engineering students account for 35
percent of UPR's student body, a figure that also puzzles UPR
administrators.
"In Puerto Rico, we have access not only to talented Hispanics and
technology but also to female engineers," says González. "We feel we have
found a pot of gold."
© Copyright 2001 by Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology
We Hispanic's are the largest minority group in the United States now, and
we are still growing. Soon we will be running everthing. People that put
down others is because they are jelous, don't have a job and needs to pick
on others to gratify themselves.
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<<We Hispanics live together with Indians and Blacks as apposed to the
white
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man. >>
From "Triumphs and Tragedy, a History of the Mexican People", by Ramon
Eduardo
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Ruiz, copyright 1992.
page 56
Only by exploiting the land, which required Indian labor, could the
Spanish
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colony flourish. Thus began the rape of the Indian, especially brutal
between
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1521 and 1550. The pillage of the Indian community included the taking of
women, "the most beautiful and the virgins," according to the natives of
Santo
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Tomas Ajusco; the Spaniards "were never satisfied."
The hunt for labor and tribute, which Spaniards exacted from the Indian,
helps explain the never-ending expeditions to explore, pacify, and enlarge
the
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boundaries of New Spain. Even before the dust had settled on Tenochtitlan,
Cortes dispatched expeditions to the four winds. Before long, Spanish
soldiers
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had seized all of Mexico, marched into Central America and braved the arid
region lying between the Californias and New Mexico.
The subjugation of the Maya of Yucatan, actually never truly completed
until
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the middle of the 19th century, lasted for a decade and a half, from 1527
to
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1542. The mastery of Yucatan was entrusted to Francisco de Montejo, a
companion of Juan de Grijalva on his expedition to Yucatan and later of
Cortes.
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With the blessings of the crown, which named him an "adelantado", Montejo
sailed from Spain in 1527 with 400 men. In 1540, with the pacification of
Yucatan still unfinished, and old and exhausted Montejo delegated the
subjugation of the Maya to his son. Montejo El Mozo completed what his
father
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had set out to do, founding Merida, the capital of Yucatan, in 1542.
Tha pacification of southern Mexico started in 1521, when Cortes sent
Gonzalo de Sandoval to Coatzalcoalcos. Luis Marin went off to impose
Spanish
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control on the Zapotecs of Oaxaca and, to do so, pushed south into
Chiapas,
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where he established a town. Chiapas resisted the Spaniards until 1527,
when
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Diego de Mazariegos subdued its inhabitants.
Pacification of northern Mexico began under Beltran Nunyo de Guzman, a
corrupt and sanctimonious lawyer of noble family with friends in high
places.
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Guzman set off for Mihoacan in 1529, acquiring almost immediately a
reputation
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for cruelty. The natives knew him as the "senyor de la borca y cuchillo",
the
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man who relied on the noose and knife to kill. Among his wanton acts one
stood
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out: the hanging of six Indian chieftains simply because they failed to
sweep
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the path over which he would walk. For six years, this sadistic Spaniards
pillaged Mihoacan, southern Zacatecas, Jalisco, and Culiacan, a region
baptized
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Nueva Galicia.
page 61
Encomenderos, first off, had their pick of the Indian women, whether with
husband or not. They used them as domestics and as concubines and, when
they
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were no longer useful, drove them away. On the sugar plantations, the
encomenderos "married" them off to their slaves. Some beat their Indian to
death; others buried them alive; the less cruel killed them with guns.
When
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they fled from his grasp, the encomendero pursued them with bloodhounds.
Cortes
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and fellow encomenderos earned money by selling their Indians into
slavery.
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Juan Ponce de Leon, one of these encomenderos, beat his Indians so badly
that
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the authorities arrested him for crimes. The best of the encomenderos
drove
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their Indians from dawn to dusk, while the heartless robbed them of their
goods.
page 68
Zumarraga, one of the most fanatical of them, believed that they must
discipline Indian heretics. As apolistic inquisitor, he brought before him
some
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19 Indian "sinners", one being Don Carlos Chichimecatecuhtli, whose
notorious
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trial in Texcoco in 1539 ended with his burning at the stake. In
Mihoacan, a
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Augustinian zealot had 4 Indian heretics tied to a pole in the town plaza,
laid
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quantities of wood at their feet, and then lit a fire, which the wind
supposedly blew out of control. Whatever the friar's intent, 2 of the
Indians
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were burned alive and the others scarred for life. Another friar in
Mihoacan
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had an Indian tortured in order to compel him to confess his sins. On the
next
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day, when the jailer came to his cell, he found that he had hanged himself
to
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escape further torture. Similar accounts besmirched the reputation of the
Franciscans in Yucatan, where they kept a tight rein for over 2 centuries.
Beatings were common, as well as reliance on church jails to woo the
unconvinced. At church masses, the absent were noted and, when caught,
whipped.
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page 77
The dramatic decline of its native population also recast the society
of New
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Spain. The death of millions of Indians, as well as the fickleness of
mining,
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shaped the silver age. According to some scholars, of the 25 million
people who
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dwelt in central Mexico in 1519, just slightly over one million survived
over a
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century later. Even when the original figure is cut in half, as dissenting
sages urge, and the number of survivors is doubled, the loss of Indian
life is
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still breathtaking. Not until the mid-seventeenth century did the decline
come
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to an end. No other European conquest had such devastating repercussions..
Illness alone did not kill the Indians. The black legend off a ruthless
Spain was no myth. The Spaniard was directly responsible for the death of
millions of native peoples. The Spaniards, after all, came to get rich, if
not
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with gold and silver, off the labor of the Indian.
Not exempt from blame were the missionaries, often the same friars who
defended the Indian. Determined to erect temples, convents, and
monasteries,
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they demanded labor of their neophytes and settled them on mission lands,
where
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European maladies spread like wildfires. Every one of the Catholic
shrines,
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usually edifices for the use of a few friars and staffed with a raft of
Indian
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servants, arose at the expense of the Indian's way of life. The clergy and
their secular allies, furthermore, disturbed the ratio of food to man by
reducing the numbers of dirt farmers while multiplying the ranks of
townsfolk
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who must be fed. The policy of congregating Indians in pueblos, which
exposed
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them to European diseases, exacerbated their plight. Spaniards, also,
upset the
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ecological balance, cutting down the forests and using the wood for their
buildings or fuel. Within a century, vast stretches of land lay barren of
trees. The iron plow cut deep into the soil, often on unprotected slopes;
when
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the rains came, they carried the topsoil away, leaving ravines and
gullies.
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Cattle roamed freely, stripping the earth of its grass cover and adding to
its
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woes in time of rain, or, more than once, wandered into the fields or corn
and
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squash tilled by Indians, destroying crops and enlarging their food
supply.
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Colonial record are replete with Indian complaints of damage done by
cattle.
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The pivotal injury done to the Indian, maybe the clue to his demise,
only
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students of the human psyche can measure. By intent and by accident,
Spaniards
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altered drastically the native cultures. Conquest was a traumatic
experience
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because the Spaniards made no effort to reach a cultural compromise. The
Indians, recalled Bernardino de Sahagun, we so "trampled underfoot that
not a
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vestige remained of what they had been." Sahagun exaggerated, but none of
the
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major Indian groups, the Aztecs included, weathered the Conquest; only
groups
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of marginal importance to the Spaniards, the Maya for one, survived.
Still,
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even in Yucatan, the conquest was a terrible episode. The arrival of the
Spaniards reduced Maya society essentially to one class, converting even
the
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native elite, which lost all but a few of its privileges, to milpa
farmers.
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Eventually, there were no native soldiers, no full-time craftsmen, no
shopkeepers or millers of flour, occupations reserved for non-Indians.
Subjugation transformed other aspects of native life. Before the
arrival of
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the European, Indians ate raw food and vegetables in abundance and drank
alcohol sparingly. The Europeans changed that. Among the Maya, for
example, a
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people who drank sparingly before the Conquest, alcoholism became a major
vice
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and the drinking of aguardiente, a raw, white rum, commonplace. Indians
were
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also told to change their ancestral way of dress, to give up loincloth for
zaraguelles, white cotton trousers, standard wear by the end of the 16th
century. Women of the humbler families, accustomed to leaving their bosoms
naked, were shamed into covering them with the huipil, before long their
traditional blouse.
page 87
Before 1540, just 6 percent of Spaniards in New Spain were women. But
Spaniards, like males the world over, could not live without women, and so
they
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fornicated with Indian females and sired mestizos.
page 89
Cortes also introduced the first African slaves to New Spain. Most of
them
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were of the Islamic faith, hailing from the western Sudan, the Congo, and
the
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Gulf of Guinea. The Spaniards had first enslaved the Indian, at times
placing
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him in chains, as had Nunyo de Guzman in Nueva Galicia. In the Panuco
region of
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the Gulf of Mexico, they sold into slavery 15,000 Indians shipping them to
the
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sugar plantations of the Caribbean. Spaniards held as many as 200,000
Indian
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slaves in 1542....
faitau Tusi Pa'ia
Nomen Nescio
2004-05-25 11:40:04 UTC
Permalink
Very funny statements from "Mr. SOBERANO MEDIOCRE"!!

Victurd, according to Googles, YOU are the one that received a degree from a substandard program in a substandard university, which makes you a substandard teacher!!




Victurd M. Rodriguez-Dominguez ("hegemn" <***@imperio.com>) wrote in message news:Rvbsc.12075$***@fed1read01...

How can YOU enforce "high" standards when you are a mediocre vendepatria?

"high" standards and vendepatria are a classic oxymoron!

You receive a degree from a substandard program in a substandard university which makes you a substandard teacher.

Hose?

Continúe leyendo en narkive:
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